Journal of Textile Research
(Started in 1979,Monthly)
Authority in Charge: China Association for Science and Technology
Sponsor: China Textile Engineering Society
Edited and Published by: Periodical Agency of Journal of Textile Research
ISSN 0253-9721
CN 11-5167/TS
Table of Content
15 October 2022, Volume 43 Issue 10
  • Fiber Materials
    Preparation of dendritic nanofiber membrane induced by hyperbranched quaternary ammonium salt and its properties
    YAO Ying, ZHAO Weitao, ZHANG Desuo, LIN Hong, CHEN Yuyue, WEI Hong
    Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(10):  1-9.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20211202809
    Abstract ( 209 )   HTML ( 45 )   PDF (3337KB) ( 160 )   Save
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    In order to develop membrane materials with high efficiency filtration performance, this research prepared polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) dendritic nanofiber membranes using hyperbranched quaternary ammonium salt (HBP-HTC) as a branching promoter based on electrostatic spinning technology in one step. The influence of the spinning process on the forming structure of the fiber membrane was explored. The mechanical properties of the dendritic nanofiber membrane were analyzed and its air filtration performance was measured. The results showed that the nanofiber membrane prepared with HBP-HTC has more dendritic structures than the membrance prepared with small molecule quaternary ammonium salts due to the abundant quaternary ammonium groups on the surface of HBP-HTC, which has a stable enrichment effect on charge. When the mass fraction of PVDF was 12%, the quaternary ammonium groups was 0.1 mol/L, and the spinning voltage was 25 kV, the dendritic coverage of the fabricated fiber membranes was as high as 78.32% and demonstrated good mechanical properties. The filtration efficiency of the prepared nanofiber membrane reached 99.995% at the thickness of 40 μm, while the pressure drop is 122.4 Pa.

    Influence of heat-treatment tension in post-processing on structural properties of high modulus low shrinkage industrial polyester fibers
    CHEN Kang, CHEN Gaofeng, WANG Qun, WANG Gang, ZHANG Yumei, WANG Huaping
    Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(10):  10-15.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210803807
    Abstract ( 87 )   HTML ( 16 )   PDF (2162KB) ( 45 )   Save
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    This research investigates the influence of heat-treatment tension on structural properties of high modulus low shrinkage (HMLS) industrial polyester fibers in post-processing. HMLS industrial polyester fibers was subjected to heat treatment with various tensions (0-0.10 cN/dtex) at 150 ℃ for 5 min. The conformational changes of the samples before and after the heat treatment were analyzed, and the structural factors regulating their properties were discussed. The results show that with the decrease of pre-tension, the breaking strength remains basically unchanged, the tenacity decreases slightly, the initial modulus and the tenacity at the specific elongation of 5.0% decreased obviously, and ultimate elongation increased significantly. The microstructure changes caused by the heat-treatment mainly occur in the amorphous chains, causing lower orientation in the amorphous region, lower trans conformation content, smaller lamellar long period and smaller amorphous thickness. The presence of pre-tension can effectively offset the shrinkage stress of the fiber, decreasing the mobility of molecular chains in the amorphous region, and the degree of mechanical properties and structure changes in the amorphous region is reduced.

    Preparation and properties of polypyrole/silk fibroin conductive nanofiber membranes
    YU Yangxiao, LI Feng, WANG Yuyu, WANG Shanlong, WANG Jiannan, XU Jianmei
    Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(10):  16-23.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210906708
    Abstract ( 120 )   HTML ( 25 )   PDF (7784KB) ( 70 )   Save
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    In order to develop tissue regeneration materials with certain electrical conductivity, we prepared silk fibroin nanofiber membranes using electrospinning and further polypyrrole/silk fibroin conductive nanofiber membranes by in-situ oxidative polymerization. The effect of spinning parameters on the surface morphology of nanofiber membrane was studied. The electrical conductivity of nanofiber membrane was tested by the four-point probe. FT-IR spectrometer was used to characterize the chemical structure of nanofiber membrane. The results showed that silk fibroin nanofiber membranes have an even surface with less beads, with an average fiber diameter of (520.70±140.81) nm, when solution concentration was 0.16 g/mL, flow rate 0.2 mL/h, voltage 20 kV, rotating speed 1 000 r/min. Polypyrrole/silk fibroin conductive nanofiber membranes was prepared by in-situ oxidative polymerization, and it retains its original nano fiber structure, and the electrical conductivity is (0.44±0.07) S/cm, when the pyrrole concentration was 0.3 mol/L, dopant concentration 0.3 mol/L, the ratio of fixed pyrrole to oxidant 1∶2, and the polymerization time 6 h.

    Acoustic properties of palm fiber felt/poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) hot-pressed composites
    ZHANG Yi, SHAO Lifeng, YANG Bin, GAO Jinxia, YU Chongwen
    Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(10):  24-30.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210804907
    Abstract ( 44 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (1674KB) ( 25 )   Save
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    In order to supplement the decreased production of jute-based acoustic composite materials for automobile interior, sound absorption properties of palm fiber felts/poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) composites were studied. Following Johnson-Allard acoustic absorption model, the effects of different palm fiber felts/PHBV mass ratio, palm fiber surface density, palm fiber linear density, palm fiber gradient structure and porous pulverized coal ash aggregate on acoustic absorption were analyzed, inparalell to the investigation into the tensile properties, thermal stability properties, infrared spectrum and cross section of SEM morphology. The results show that the best mass ratio of palm fiber felt to PHBV for acoustic performance was 40∶60, the linear density of palm fiber was 14.5 dtex and the gradient structure of palm fiber mat was 143.3/102.5 g/m2. The average was the highest (0.53) for frequencies between 200 and 1 600 Hz. The addition of 5% porous coal ash ceramsite could increase the acoustic composite materials to 0.66, which has the potential to partially replace jute for the making acoustic composite materials.

    Textile Engineering
    Numerical simulation of airflow field in carding and trash removal zone of rotor spinning
    YANG Ruihua, HE Chuang, GONG Xinxia, CHEN Hewen
    Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(10):  31-35.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210901308
    Abstract ( 51 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (6317KB) ( 17 )   Save
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    In order to explore trash-removing characteristics of rotor spinning combing and trash removal mechanism, two types of combing and trash removal devices were selected, and a physical model was established through 3-D modeling software. Further, the distribution characteristics of air pressure, velocity and turbulent kinetic energy in these two trash removal devices were obtained and the effects of trash-removing were compared. Experiment results show that the pressure distribution in the two carding cavities of model I and model Ⅱ was negative pressure, the velocity distribution in the two carding cavities was uneven. Moreover, turbulent kinetic energy was identified at the impurity discharge port of model I, which was not conducive to the discharge of impurities. However, no change of turbulent kinetic energy was found in the trash discharge area of model Ⅱ, which was conducive to the removal of impurities. The accuracy of Fluent simulation results was validated by the spinning experiments.

    Optimization of full spectrum color matching algorithm for color spun yarn based on visual characteristics
    CHENG Lu, MA Chongqi, ZHOU Huimin, WANG Ying, XIA Xin
    Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(10):  38-44.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210904207
    Abstract ( 56 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (1591KB) ( 29 )   Save
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    In order to improve the accuracy and applicability of computer color matching algorithm for color spunyarns, a full-spectrum color matching algorithm was proposed based on the classical Stearns Noechel optical theoretical model, aiming at the problems that it is difficult to minimize error in calculated color difference value and that in matching relative deviation. The sensitivity coefficient of human visual characteristics to reflected light at different wavelengths was determined by exploring human visual characteristics, and it was introduced into the color matching algorithm for weighted calculation to predict the monochrome fiber mixing ratio. The color matching effect was evaluated by predicting the color difference value, the relative deviation value of the ratio and the Euclidean distance. Results show that the color matching algorith with Poisson distribution introduced to the human eye sensitivity coefficient is optimal, with the average prediction color difference value being 0.29 and all within 1, the ratio of the average relative deviation value being minimal 0.612, Euclidean distance average being 0.087 which is relatively small. When using the improved color matching algorithm, the prediction of the color difference value can be achieved through one calculation, leading to a small color difference with higher accuracy. With the improved algorithm, computer assisted color matching for color spunyarns can be primarily achieved.

    Effect of dynamic mechanical load on mechanical and electrical properties of ultra-fine gold coated molybdenum wires
    LI Jianna, CHEN Xi, SHAO Huiqi, SHAO Guangwei, JIANG Jinhua, CHEN Nanliang
    Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(10):  45-52.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210604308
    Abstract ( 56 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (4649KB) ( 13 )   Save
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    Aiming at the understanding of reduction of bending stiffness and energy dissipation in ultra-fine metal yarns after cyclic loading, yarns made from gold coated molybdenum wires with different structures were studied subject to 50 cycles of bending and 200 cycles of reciprocating friction, followed by the comparison of the morphology, tensile properties and electrical properties. The mechanical and structural responses of the yarns under cyclic bending load and friction reciprocating load were investigated, and the knittability of the yarns from metal wires was quantitatively analyzed. The results show that the micro- and macro-structures of gold coated molybdenum wire are damaged, the mechanical properties are decreased and the contact electrical resistance is slightly increased under the cyclic bending and reciprocating friction loads. The tensile rigidity and strength of double-stranded gold coated molybdenum yarns are greatly decreased under the same conditions, which is not suitable for fabric knitting. The dynamic mechanical properties and electrical properties of mono- and triple-stranded gold-coated molybdenum wires are stable under dynamic load, which can be used as raw materials for knitting electromagnetic shielding fabrics.

    New measurement method for fabric multi-directional bending performance
    LIU Chengxia, ZHANG Yaqi
    Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(10):  53-57.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210807605
    Abstract ( 66 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (3648KB) ( 47 )   Save
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    Under the widely used testing method for fabric bending performance, only one result for one direction can be obtained by using one fabric. To investigate a testing method that can characterize fabric multi-directional bending performance simultaneously, 20 common fabrics were chosen and tested with the conventional method to obtain the bending length in the directions of 0°、90°、45°和135° by cutting the fabric sample into stripes along these four directions for testing. Correlation analysis was conducted between projection length and projection area with bending length. It was concluded that both the projection length and projection area have good correlation with bending length of the conventional method, with the coefficient about 0.95, which proves the new method can be used to characterize the bending properties of 0°、90°、45° and 135°. Two reading can be obtained in each direction, and therefore, it is more efficient and accurate than the conventional method. Besides, it can visualize fabric anisotropy in bending performance and display the testing stability of bending in one direction.

    Development of environmentally friendly knitted fabrics with 3-D moisture conductive structure and performance evaluation on moisture absorption and quick-drying
    WANG Yue, WANG Chunhong, XU Lei, LIU Shengkai, LU Chao, WANG Lijian, YANG Lu, ZUO Qi
    Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(10):  58-64.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210907907
    Abstract ( 57 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (3239KB) ( 35 )   Save
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    In order to develop environmentally friendly fabrics with moisture absorption and quick-drying performance, a new 3-D moisture-conducting structure was designed to develop double-side derivative fabrics with knitted spacer structure. TencelTM and recycled polyester fibers were used, and 9 different knitted fabrics were experimented on with single-sided and double-sided constructions. Using the derivative knitted spacer structure, the fabric made from TencelTM/recycled polyester fibers was compared with the fabric of TencelTM/hollow polyester and that of TencelTM/DuPontTM Sorona®. The fabrics were tested and analyzed by moisture management method and combination tests method. The fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method was used to compare the moisture absorption and quick-drying performance of the fabrics. The results show that two test methods yield different values in the ranking of the moisture absorption and quick-drying properties. Through comprehensive analysis, 18 tex TencelTM and 33.3 tex (96 f) recycled polyester filament fabric with 3-D moisture-conducting structure has the best moisture absorption and quick-drying performance. Of the single-side fabrics, the mixed knitted fabrics of TencelTM/recycled polyester filament with flat knit structure have excellent moisture absorption and quick-drying performance. These fabrics have the potential to be used in the field of green and environmentally friendly sportswear.

    Preparation and performance of spacer fabric-based photothermal-thermoelectric composites
    LI Mufang, CHEN Jiaxin, ZENG Fanjia, WANG Dong
    Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(10):  65-70.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210803106
    Abstract ( 52 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (2591KB) ( 58 )   Save
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    In order to improve the thermoelectric performance of flexible wearable energy supply equipment, NaOH and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) are used together to dope poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate)(PEDOT:PSS)to prepare NaOH/DMSO/PEDOT:PSS thermoelectric film, and the influence of NaOH and DMSO concentration on the conductivity, Seebeck coefficient and power factor of PEDOT:PSS were studied. Cotton/polyester spacer fabric was used as the substrate, and the photothermal-thermoelectric composite thermoelectric material was prepared by compounding NaOH/DMSO/PEDOT:PSS and coating ZrC/polyurethane (PU) photothermal layer, and the morphology, structure and thermoelectric properties of the composites were characterized. The results show that when 0.5% NaOH and 3.5% DMSO are added, the power factor of NaOH/DMSO/PEDOT:PSS thermoelectric film reaches the peak value of 25.6 μW/(m·K2), which is 2 327 times that of pure PEDOT:PSS film. The Seebeck coefficient of the photothermal-thermoelectric composite material is 35.5 μV/K, and the voltage generated by the thermoelectric composite material under illumination after adding the photothermal layer is 6.3 times that of the thermoelectric composite material without a photothermal layer.

    Nondestructive testing on damage of carbon fiber composites using ultrasonic C-scanning
    FANG Zhouqian, MIAO Peiyuan, JIN Xiaoke, ZHU Chengyan, TIAN Wei
    Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(10):  71-76.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210903306
    Abstract ( 54 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (5627KB) ( 16 )   Save
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    With respect to the hole defects of the carbon fiber composites, the ultrasonic C-scan imaging detection technology was used to scan the specimens with holes, and the position of the defects obtained C-scan were analyze. The holed specimens were scanned, and the appearance of the scanned image was analyzed for causing reasons. Cluster analysis was performed to establish the relationship between the actual area of the defect and the detection area, and reflection scanning and scanning electron microscopy were carried out for the holed specimens and the composite delamination was analyzed according to the scanning waveform and electron microscopy. The research results show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the C-scan image and the position of the composite material defect, and that when the hole diameter is larger than the beam width of the focusing probe, the edge of the hole does not affect the beam penetration and energy loss. The work indicated that the ultrasonic C-scan imaging detection technology can further verify holes and delamination defects.

    Dyeing and Finishing & Chemicals
    Effects of different alcohols and additives on organic solvent degumming for hemp fibers
    SHI Zhaohe, QIN Zhihui, ZHAO Shuyuan, LIU Liu, ZHANG Ruiyun, CHENG Longdi
    Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(10):  77-82.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210801406
    Abstract ( 46 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (3598KB) ( 16 )   Save
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    In order to overcome the disadvantages of traditional chemical degumming, such as serious pollution and fiber damage, as well as the high cost and time-consuming biological degumming process, hemp bast was degummed with high boiling point alcohol organic solvent to improve degumming selectivity and ensure safety and environmental protection. To solve the problem of insufficient residual glue rate and physical and mechanical properties of hemp fiber after degumming, alkaline sodium salt additives were added to organic solvents to assist degumming. The effects of four different alcohols (ethylene glycol, 1,2-propanediol, glycerol and 1,4-butanediol) and three different alkaline sodium salt (sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and sodium silicate) additives on the degumming effect of hemp bast were studied, and the chemical and physical properties of degummed fiber were compared. The results showed that among the four alcohols, the performance of hemp fiber degummed by ethylene glycol was the best, the lignin removal effect was the best, the residual rubber rate of fiber was 8.67%, but the breaking strength was low, which was 3.92 cN/dtex. Among the three basic sodium salt additives, the residual gum rate of hemp fiber degummed by sodium carbonate assisted ethylene glycol is 7.71%, and the breaking strength is 4.84 cN/dtex, which meets the national standard of refined hemp.

    Effect of ozone plasma pretreatment on dyeing properties of aramid fibers
    GUO Yafei, LIANG Gaoyong, WANG Meihui, HAO Xinmin
    Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(10):  83-88.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210206706
    Abstract ( 44 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (3868KB) ( 16 )   Save
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    In order to solve the problem that aramid fiber is difficult to dye and print by conventional process, the aramid fabric was pretreated by ozone plasma and then modified by resin. The influence of plasma pretreatment on the surface elements and morphology of resin modified aramid fiber was studied, and the dyeing effect of modified aramid fabric with disperse dyes was explored. It was found that ozone plasma pretreatment introduced abundant active groups and constructed rough interface, which significantly improved the uniform dispersion of resin, and the bonding strength between resin and fabric increased by 104%. At the same time, the dye uptake (98.6%) and apparent dyeing depth (2.7) of aramid fabric were greatly improved. The color fastness of the dyed fabric has been effectively improved, and the color fastness to friction can meet the requirements of clothing fabrics. The modification of aramid fiber with resin pretreated by ozone plasma has certain reference significance for improving the dyeing properties of aramid fibers.

    Influencing factors on flexible fabric-based electrical circuit formation by micro-jet printed primary cell replacement deposition
    XIAO Yuan, LI Qian, ZHANG Wei, HU Hanchun, GUO Xinlei
    Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(10):  89-96.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210905708
    Abstract ( 32 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (28025KB) ( 139 )   Save
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    In view of the problems of complicated process, high cost, poor integration with textiles existing in the preparation of flexible electrical circuits in smart textiles, a method of micro-jet printing primary cell replacing deposit fabric-based electrical circuits is proposed. Based on the use of the piezoelectric micro-droplet ejection system, the effects of the concentration and mass of silver nitrate and ascorbic acid and the selection of anode substrate on morphology and square resistance for the formed circuits were studied. The results show that under stable ejection conditions, the fabric-based electrical circuits can be prepared using the proposed method. When the mass concentration of silver nitrate solution is 0.5 g/mL and that of ascorbic acid is 0.3 g/mL, the number of silver nitrate printing layers is 4, and the mass ratio of fabric to ascorbic acid solution is 1∶2, the obtained square resistance and standard deviation of the formed silver circuits are 0.047 8 Ω/□ and 0.009 138 Ω/□, respectively. When copper was applied for the base board, the silver layers on the surface of fabric substrate are uniform and dense with large silver particle size, and the average square resistance and variance of the obtained silver circuits became smaller.

    Fabrication and photocatalyic performance of Bi2MoO6 modified TiO2 nanorod array photocatalyst
    ZHOU Xiaoju, HU Zhenglong, REN Yiming, XIE Landong
    Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(10):  97-105.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20220408509
    Abstract ( 42 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (4453KB) ( 15 )   Save
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    In order to obtain a recyclable photocatalyst for efficient degradation of organic pollutants under visible light, TiO2 nanorod arrays were modified with Bi2MoO6 nanosheets by hydrothermal solvothermal two-step method to obtain Bi2MoO6/TiO2 composite. The morphology, structure, chemical element composition and optical properties of Bi2MoO6/TiO2 photocatalyst were analyzed, and the photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic properties of Bi2MoO6/TiO2 photocatalyst were tested with the help of electrochemical workstation in order to analyze the mechanism of enhanced photocatalytic activity. The results show that modification of TiO2 nanorod arrays by Bi2MoO6 with narrow gap broadens the spectral response range, promotes the effective separation and transfer of photogenerated carriers, and obtains significantly enhanced photocatalytic degradation efficiency of methylene blue. The energy band structure diagram shows that type II heterojunction is formed between TiO2 and Bi2MoO6, which promotes the separation and transfer of photogenerated electron holes. The synergistic effect between type II band structure of Bi2MoO6/TiO2 and the extended absorption of visible light is the internal mechanism for the improvement of photocatalytic properties.

    Preparation and photocatalytic properties of cotton fabrics loaded with polymetallic organic framework material
    ZHENG Linjuan, YU Jia, YIN Chong, LIANG Zhijie, MAO Qinghui
    Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(10):  106-111.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210704006
    Abstract ( 49 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (3291KB) ( 10 )   Save
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    To prepare cotton fabrics with photocatalytic properties, the in-situ growth of polyacids on cotton fabrics was achieved by introducing metal organic framework materials into which polymetallic oxides of suitable dimensions were loaded. The effects of metal ion reaction time, amount of polymetallic acid, organic ligand and reaction time of polymetallic acid on the photocatalytic performance of the prepared cotton fabrics loaded with polymetallic organic framework material (POMOF) were investigated, and the morphology and structure of cotton fabrics loaded with POMOF were characterized with the aid of scanning electron microscopy and FT-IR spectrometry. The results show that the carboxylation modification of cotton fabrics is able to form multiple active sites on its surface, and the degradation rate of cotton fabrics loaded with POMOF to Rhodamine B solution (10 mg/L) reached 92.23% in 135 min when the modified cotton fabric was reacted in copper nitrate solution for 12 h, the amount ratio of homophthalic acid to polytungstate was 1∶4, and the reaction time of organic ligand and polyacid was 10 h. This cotton fabric loaded with POMOF demonstrated good photocatalytic performance and has great potential in the degradation of printing and dyeing wastewater.

    Photocatalytic synergistic efficiency of viscose fabric loaded with nitrogen carbon quantum dots/titanium dioxide
    FENG Yan, LI Liang, LIU Shuping, LI Shujing, LIU Rangtong
    Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(10):  112-118.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210805808
    Abstract ( 42 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (3923KB) ( 7 )   Save
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    In order to improve the self-cleaning performance of clothing fabrics under sunlight, nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (N-CQDs) were prepared from citric acid and urea, and the composite photocatalytic textiles were created through hydrothermal treatment of viscose fabrics loaded with nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots and nano titanium dioxide. The viscose fabrics were characterized by means of scanning electron microscope, infrared spectrometer, and ultraviolet-visible photometer, and heir optical absorption, photocatalytic degradation and stability were tested. The synergistic mechanism of degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) by N-CQDs, TiO2 and their composite systems were studied. The results show that the decolorization rate of fabric loaded with N-CQDs/TiO2 is 76.5%, which is 49.1% higher than that of fabric loaded with TiO2, and the decolorization rate can still reach 62.34% after 6 cycles of photocatalytic degradation of RhB.

    Preparation and antifouling properties of super-slip cotton fabric based on polymer microspheres grafted with silicone oil
    ZHANG Diandian, YU Mengnan, LI Min, LIU Mingming, FU Shaohai
    Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(10):  119-125.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210708007
    Abstract ( 44 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (6186KB) ( 20 )   Save
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    In order to improve the physical and chemical stability of super-slip(SLIPS) fabrics, the self-adhesive core-shell polymer microspheres were prepared by emulsion polymerization using vinyl-modified silica nanoparticles (V-SiO2) as the raw material. After the dipping and baking process, it was bonded to the surface of cotton fabric to obtain a rough substrate. The amino silicone oil was then grafted onto rough substrate surface by amino-epoxy graft reaction and amino-hydroxyl hydrogen bond to obtain a SLIPS-cotton fabric(SLIPS-Cotton). The properties of liquid repellent, antifouling, physical and chemical stability of SLIPS-Cotton were studied. The results shown that the rough structure of the SLIPS in SLIPS-Cotton is composed of microspheres with a particle size of 321.3 nm, and the contact angle of water droplets on the surface is 138°. The sliding angles of water and dimethyl sulfoxide on the surface of the SLIPS-Cotton are 7° and 15° respectively. After contacting with tomato sauce and coffee contaminants, the amount of adhesion on the surface of SLIPS-Cotton is significantly reduced. After water splash washing within 200 mL, the sliding angles of water and dimethyl sulfoxide on SLIPS-Cotton surface are less than 12° and 26°, respectively. The contact angles of droplets on the surface of the SLIPS-Cotton are stable between 42° and 49° at pH 3-9.

    Bionic construction of three-dimentional super hydrophobic microfiber suede leather
    GAO Qiang, FAN Haojun, YAN Jun, CHEN Yuguo, ZHENG Ping
    Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(10):  126-132.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210807107
    Abstract ( 40 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (4752KB) ( 15 )   Save
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    In order to tackle the poor durability of 2-D super hydrophobic microfiber suede leather, a construction method of 3-D super hydrophobic microfiber suede was proposed inspired by the hydrophobic structure of lotus leaf surface and the special 3-D network structure of microfiber nonwoven. The mixture of fluorine-containing waterborne polyurethane and nano precursor (tetraethoxysilane) was uniformly impregnated to superfine fiber nonwoven, and under weak acid conditions the nano precursor was induced to in-situ generate nano SiO2 particles inside the microfiber suede, which formed a lotus-like micro/nano rough surface with overall self-similarity. A 3-D super hydrophobic microfiber suede leather was bionically constructed, and its morphology, chemical composition, contact angle, friction durability and chemical stability were measured and characterized. The results show that the water contact angle of microfiber suede surface is up to 153.5°. After 2 100 times of abrasion, soaking for 24 h in aqueous solutions (pH=1 and 14) containing ethanol, p-xylene, tetrahydrofuran, and n-hexane, soap washing for 10 times, exposing to UV light for 24 h, and heat treatment, the water contact angle is still around 150°, demonstrating a durable 3-D super hydrophobicity.

    Apparel Engineering
    Methods for converting 3-D styles to 2-D patterns for fully formed garments
    LU Lisha, JIANG Gaoming
    Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(10):  133-140.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210808508
    Abstract ( 50 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (3395KB) ( 28 )   Save
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    In order to further understand the knitting principle of whole garments and develop more styles with different shapes, this work investigated the conversion principles from 3-D style to 2-D patterns considering the theory, mathematical model and conversion process. Conversion methods of different types of garments from 3-D style to 2-D patterns were considered based on double-layer structure, three-layer structure and four-layer structure. Taking five typical styles as examples, the 2-D pattern design and knitting practice were carried out using the SDS-ONE APEX3 system and a four-bed computerized flat knitting machine. The results show that the front and back pieces of the 2-D patterns of the garments with double-layer structure are determined by the side seam and the centerline respectively depending on whether the width of the front and back pieces of 3-D style are equal or not. The 2-D pattern of the garments with three-layer structure are to be determined by dividing in the back centerline or armholes, or unfolding on the side seam and placket based on whether the 3-D style contains sleeves. The connecting position of the inner and outer layers of the garments with the four-layer structure should be located at the collar, waist and other special parts.

    Application of paper pattern technology in knitting process of fully formed inclined skirt
    XU Yanhua, YUAN Xinlin
    Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(10):  141-147.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210809207
    Abstract ( 35 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (3598KB) ( 9 )   Save
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    In order to tackle the large error between the size of the fully formed inclined skirt sample and the customer's requirements, the fully formed panels structure, knitting process and the causes of the size error were analyzed. The paper pattern technology used for woven garments is applied to the pattern drawing and the arc length acquisition of the waist and hem for the fully formed inclined skirt. The pattern was drawn by fan-shaped cutting-spreading method and arbitrary angle fan-ring method. The arc length was obtained by the paper pattern cutting-moving method and the fan-ring arc length calculation method. The comparisons between the two types of paper patterns and between the two arcs lengths were carried out. A direct theoretical calculation method that is more suitable for the acquisition of the arc length was deduced. The results show that the combination of fan-shaped cutting-spreading method and paper pattern cutting-moving method can be used to obtain the accurate arc length, while the combination of arbitrary angle fan-ring method and fan-ring arc length calculation method can directly calculate the arc length without complex and cumbersome paper pattern drawing, cutting and moving. The sampling time is shortened and the efficiency is improved.

    Research on breast shape of young females using characteristic parameters
    ZHONG Zejun, ZHANG Beibei, XU Kaiyi, WANG Ruowen, GU Bingfei
    Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(10):  148-154.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210907607
    Abstract ( 91 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (4203KB) ( 28 )   Save
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    In order to study young female's breast shape discrimination for improving the bra sizing system for the Chinese females, a definition method for defining breast boundary was proposed to ensure the consistency of breast shape measurement indexes. Raw data was collected by scanning 140 female college students using the [TC]2 scanner, and 28 breast measurement values including height, width, angle, and arc were extracted. Analysis of data was conducted by integrating coefficient of variation and correlation analysis methods, and 6 major parameters affecting breast morphology were identified as clustering indexes. K-means cluster was used to categorize the breast shapes into groups from the 3-D shape of the breast, and the breast shape was subdivided by the ratio of gathering degree and the young females' breast shape was divided into 9 categories. Based on the classification results on breast morphology, Fisher criterion function was used to verify the samples. The results show that the accuracy of overall judgment of the initial sample data based on morphological discrimination rules is as high as 97.1%, which shows that this criterion method has high accuracy, providing new ideas for the breast morphology research, and has a positive effect on the progress in the brassiere industry in China.

    Lightweight clothing detection method based on an improved YOLOv5 network
    CHEN Jinguang, LI Xue, SHAO Jingfeng, MA Lili
    Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(10):  155-160.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210809306
    Abstract ( 71 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (9127KB) ( 25 )   Save
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    In order to further reduce the occupation of computing resources by the clothing object detection model based on deep learning, an improved lightweight clothing object detection method, MV3L-YOLOv5, was proposed. The MobileNetV3_Large is used to construct the backbone network of YOLOv5, and the label smoothing strategy was introduced to enhance the generalization ability at the training stage of the model. The data augmentation technology was used to make up for the unbalanced number of images of different clothing categories in the DeepFashion2 dataset. Experimental results show that the model volume of MV3L-YOLOv5 is 10.27 MB, the floating-point operations is 10.2×109 times, and mean average precision is 76.6 %. Comparing with YOLOv5s, which is the lightest network in YOLOv5 series, MV3L-YOLOv5 is compressed in the model volume by 26.4 %, reduced the floating-point operations by 39 %, and improved accuracy by 1.3 %. Experimental results in the improved algorithm show that the detection performance is notably improved, and the model is lighter and more suitable for deployment in devices with limited resources.

    Emotion measurement of one-piece swimsuit structure based on response surface analysis
    CHEN Yifei, LIU Chi, YANG Meng
    Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(10):  161-168.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210808008
    Abstract ( 39 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (7662KB) ( 17 )   Save
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    Aiming at the user emotional differences caused by different one-piece swimsuits, a research was carried out starting from the structural design based on the basic structure of one-piece swimsuit. Three structural design elements of front neckline depth, back neckline depth, and side seam length were selected as factors, and a three-factor three-level response surface design procedure was explored. CLO3D software was used to obtain three-dimensional virtual fitting dynamic videos of each one-piece swimsuit as a stimulus video. The evaluation scales of pleasure, activation, and dominance were as indicators to measure user emotions. Response surface experiments were conducted and regression equations establish. The results show that the response surface model fits well with the actual situation and is capable of better predicting the emotional values of the one-piece swimsuit. The factors affecting the pleasure and activation are in the order of side seam length, back neckline depth, front neckline depth, and the degree of dominance are in the order of back neckline depth, side seam length, front neckline depth and the interaction between front neckline depth and back neckline depth has a significant influence on emotions. The prediction results of emotion-oriented one-piece swimsuit structure design were obtained.

    Machinery & Accessories
    Influence of different nozzle structures and parameters on nozzle performance of foreign fiber sorters
    SUN Jian, JIANG Boyi, ZHANG Shoujing, HU Sheng
    Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(10):  169-175.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210809907
    Abstract ( 31 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (6552KB) ( 4 )   Save
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    In order to investigate the influence of different nozzle structures and parameters on the nozzle performance of the foreign fiber sorters, nozzles with the upper flaring, lower flaring, conic and rectangular structures and parameters were analyzed by three dimensional fluid simulations. The mass flow rate at the nozzle inlet, the velocity at the 40 mm section in the external air flow field and the velocity attenuation curves at the inner and outer nozzles were obtained under the 0.6 MPa inlet pressure. The results show that the performance of the nozzle can be improved by the three nozzle structures mentioned above except the rectangular nozzle, and the performance of the upper flaring nozzle is the best, of which the average velocity and maximum velocity are 33.4% and 12.9%, respectively, higher than that of the original nozzle. Compared with the original nozzle, the average velocity of the lower flaring nozzle is increased by 11.6%, and the inlet mass flow rate decreased by 0.17%. The overall velocity distribution of the conical nozzle is better than that of the upper flaring nozzle, but with big increase of inlet mass flow rate.

    Needle selector detection system based on image processing
    YUAN Yanhong, ZENG Hongming, MAO Muquan
    Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(10):  176-182.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210101107
    Abstract ( 41 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (2452KB) ( 14 )   Save
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    In order to improve the inspection efficiency for needle selectors, a set of automatic needle selector inspection system based on image processing was designed. The system was composed of an ordinary industrial camera, a needle selector controller, a needle selector placement platform and a personal computer. The needle selector is checked by the gray value of the knife head at the two extreme positions. By analyzing the swing rule of the needle selector knife head, the feasibility of using the gray value of the needle selector knife head to judge the knife head swing operation was verified. The Python software was adopted to achieve image acquisition and cropping, and gray value of each cutter head was efficiently extracted by combine Otsu, contour detection, image erosion and other algorithms. The results were compared with the pre-solved threshold to achieve normal operation of the cutter head measurement and judgment. The designed human-computer interaction interface can display the inspection status in real time, and it saves the pictures of the error frames of the needle selector in the designated directory and the error log in the designated file for reference and analysis. The completed system has low cost and no special experimental environment requirements. The actual test of the needle selector that simulates error indicates that the inspection system can effectively realize the detection of the needle selector blade.

    Comprehensive Review
    Fabrication and application research progress of fiber-based self-powered electronic skins
    LÜ Xiaoshuang, LIU Liping, YU Jianyong, DING Bin, LI Zhaoling
    Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(10):  183-191.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20220404509
    Abstract ( 146 )   HTML ( 32 )   PDF (8552KB) ( 89 )   Save
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    This review introduces the categories, characteristics, and preparation processes for constructing materials with applications for electronic skins, from the perspective of composition structure of the electronic skins with tactile sensing capability. The compelling features of breathable fiber materials serving as substrate layer, electrode layer, and sensing layer in electronic skins were highlighted, in view of the poor air permeability of current dense film-based and rubber-based electronic skins that easily lead to itching during long-term wearing. The working mechanisms of piezoelectric and triboelectric electronic skins were introduced, which are not only able to achieve real-time pressure sensing response, but also able to harvest the ambient mechanical energy and convert it into electricity to power themselves. These are conducive to the fabrication of miniatured, lightweight, and flexible wearable devices. The research progresses in fiber-based self-powered electronic skins in the fields of motion monitoring and medical detection were comprehensively summarized in terms of preparation methods, performance characterizations, and practical applications. The existing challenges and future development directions of fiber-based self-powered electronic skins were extensively discussed.

    Application progress of fiber materials in flexible wearable zinc batteries
    WANG Jin, HU Kairui, ZHANG Liufei, CHEN Lei
    Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(10):  192-199.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210608108
    Abstract ( 70 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (1200KB) ( 20 )   Save
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    In order to promote the application of zinc ion batteries with high safety and low cost in flexible energy storage devices, the paper takes fiber-based zinc ion batteries as the object and firstly clarifies the mechanism of zinc anode oxidation and transition metal oxide or oxygen positive cathode reduction in the process of charge and discharge proccess. Secondly, fibers such as carbon fiber, carbon nanofiber, carbon nanotube yarn, metal fiber and other inorganic fiber in the cathode, anode and electrolyte of flexible zinc battery are reviewed. The effects of different preparation processes, microstructure and modification strategies on the electrochemical characteristics of fiber-based flexible batteries are analyzed and compared, and the main parameters affecting its performance are defined. At last, it is proposed that the structural ordered design of fibers has a significant effect on improving the electrochemical performance of batteries, and the broad development prospect of natural fiber based electrode materials is emphasized. This paper has a positive significance for accelerating the industrial application of intelligent clothing and helping to realize the vision of "carbon peak and carbon neutralization" as soon as possible.

    Review in functional textiles for personal thermal and moisture comfort management
    CHENG Ningbo, MIAO Dongyang, WANG Xianfeng, WANG Zhaohui, DING Bin, YU Jianyong
    Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(10):  200-208.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210401609
    Abstract ( 100 )   HTML ( 19 )   PDF (1609KB) ( 78 )   Save
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    With the aim of achieving improved individual comfort and reduce energy consumption in providing cooling and heating, textiles regulating heat and moisture exchange between human body and its surroundings are a promising solution. This paper reviews the researches on functional textiles for heat and moisture management. The review started with the introduction of personal heat and moisture comfort management mechanisms, followed by summarizing six common advanced functional textiles that can be used for personal heat and moisture management, these being the radiative thermoregulation textiles, phase change thermoregulation textiles, smart response textiles, thermal conductive textiles, thermoregulation textiles for energy conversion, and moisture management textiles. The research progress in functional textiles was summarized on the basis of different heat and moisture management mechanisms and their potential applications in several fields, taking that fabric regulation of microclimate between body and ambient heat and moisture balance is the key to individual comfort. The review pointed out that the current advanced functional textiles for heat and moisture management still have problems such as difficulties in scale preparation, functional singleness, lack of intelligence and absence of systemic heat and moisture comfort evaluation, and it is foreseen that advanced textiles for personal heat management, energy harvesting technology and integration of flexible electronic devices are the future development trend of smart clothing.

    Research progress in high efficiency and low resistance air filter materials
    YANG Jizhen, LIU Qiangfei, HE Ruidong, WU Shaohua, HE Hongwei, NING Xin, ZHOU Rong, DONG Xianglin, QI Guishan
    Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(10):  209-215.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210305007
    Abstract ( 89 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (1188KB) ( 37 )   Save
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    In order to develop high efficiency and low resistance air filtration materials, solve the imbalance between filtration efficiency and filtration resistance in the current research, and further improve the quality factor for filtration materials, this paper reviews the relevant research on nanofiber membrane, melt-blown filtration materials and high-temperature resistant needle filter mat in recent years.The research status of electret filtration materials, micro-nano structure filtration materials, gradient structuring and finishing methods to improve the filtration efficiency of materials are reviewed.The influencing factors of charge storage capacity of materials are analyzed and discussed. The preparation methods of micro-nano structure materials are summarized. The advantages and disadvantages of gradient structuring and finishing methods for improving filtration efficiency were compared. It is concluded that the electret and micro-nano structured filtration materials will draw great attention from researchers because of their great potentials in the future field of air purification.

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