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Table of Content

    15 July 2022, Volume 43 Issue 07
    • Invited Paper
      Rapid separation and content determination of fibers from waste cotton/polyester blended fabrics
      ZHANG Xiaocheng, ZHOU Yan, TIAN Weiguo, QIAO Xin, JIA Fengwei, XU Lili, ZHANG Jinming, ZHANG Jun
      Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(07):  1-8.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20220307508
      Abstract ( 168 )   HTML ( 12 )   PDF (17185KB) ( 324 )   Save
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      Based on ionic liquid/co-solvent system with excellent dissolving capability for cellulose and relatively low viscosity, a method for rapid component separation and content determination for waste cotton/polyester blended fabrics was proposed. The effect of ionic liquid and co-solvent on the dissolving capability, solution viscosity, structure and properties of separated components was studied. The results indicate that the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate/dimethyl sulfoxide (the mass ratio is 1:1) system can selectively dissolve cellulose in the cotton/polyester blended fabrics, and the resultant cellulose solution has a low viscosity. Subsequently, after a simple filtration, cellulose and polyester fibers can be completely separated under simple and mild conditions, with the separation temperature to be 25-60 ℃. The cellulose component is almost non-degradable, and can be processed into film, fibers and microspheres. The polyester component with a high purity can also be separated and keep its original textile morphology in blended fabrics. In summary, the ionic liquid/co-solvent method not only can high-efficiently separate the components of the cotton/polyester blended fabrics, but also can accurately measure the components content. Therefore, this work provides a promising and useful method to the recycling and re-utilization of waste textiles, indicating a great potential in the practical applications.

      Fiber Materials
      Thickening behaviour and performance of titanium-based polyethylene terephthalate
      LIN Qisong, GAO Feng, LÜ Wangyang, CHEN Wenxing
      Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(07):  9-16.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210507308
      Abstract ( 67 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (3221KB) ( 40 )   Save
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      To extend the application of titanium-based polyethylene terephthalate (PET) in the manufacturing industrial polyester yarns, advanced polymer chromatography together with multi-angle laser light scattering was employed to research the thickening behaviour under various temperatures. A relationship between polycondensation temperature and molecular weight and its distribution of titanium-based PET were established. UV-Vis spectrophotometer and differential scanning calorimeter were used to study PET coloration with its thermal properties. The results indicate that molecular weight of the titanium-based PET increases as the polycondensation temperatures increase, and its coloration is obviously affected by the temperature. The required time for viscosity increasing decreases as the temperatures rise. The weight-average molecular weight for titanium-based PET obtained at 270 ℃ for 20 min reaction time is similar to that obtained at 220 ℃ for 10 h reaction time. It is shown that the elevated molecular weight leads to a decrease of PET crystalline performance and melt temperature. The molecular weight distribution becomes narrower when polycondensation temperature exceeds the melting temperature, and the molecular weight meets the requirements for industrial polyester yarns. The study on high molecular weight with narrow molecular weight distribution provides useful reference for making industrial polyester yarns.

      Preparation and properties of normal pressure-anionic dyeable polypropylene fiber based on polyionic liquid
      LIANG Jiaojiao, WANG Jingjing, XIA Yumin, ZHU Xinyuan, YAN Bing, SUN Liming, WANG Yanping, HE Yong, WANG Yimin
      Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(07):  17-21.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210404505
      Abstract ( 37 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (3428KB) ( 9 )   Save
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      In order to prepare anionic dyeable polypropylene fiber, a type of cationic polyionic liquid was designed and synthesized, and its compatibility with the polypropylene blend system was studied. The blended system was spun into yarns by melt spinning method, and its mechanical properties and dyeing properties were investigated. Results show that the blending system of polypropylene and polyionic liquid has good compatibility. The addition of polyionic liquid reduces the degree of crystallinity and orientation of polypropylene, which makes the modified polypropylene fiber more favorable to combine with the dye. Dyeing experiment on the modified fiber showed that the dyeing rate and the dyeing depth of the fiber reaches 17.0% and 5.450 3 respectively. The breaking strength of the modified fiber is 4.4 cN/dtex, which meets the requirements for textile processing.

      Preparation of aqueous dispersion system of bisneopentyl glycol dithiopyrophosphate and its application in flame-retardant viscose fiber
      XIONG Yonghui, WANG Dong, DU Changsen, FU Shaohai
      Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(07):  22-28.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210608607
      Abstract ( 59 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (3789KB) ( 9 )   Save
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      To decrease the particle size of bisneopentyl glycol dithiopyrophosphate (DDPS), and improve the interface compatibility with viscose fibers (VF), the DDPS aqueous dispersion was prepared using non-ionic polyoxyethylene ether dispersants through an ultra-fine processing technology. The influence of dispersant structure on the particle size of DDPS was explored, the response surface method was used to optimize the ultra-fine process parameters. The DDPS aqueous dispersion was then blended into viscose spinning dope, and flame-retardant viscose fibers were prepared through the wet spinning process. The flame-retardant properties of the fibers were explored. The results show that the combination of tallow amine polyoxyethylene ether (TA10) and castor oil polyoxyethylene ether (EL90) has better synergistic dispersion effect for DDPS. With 4 h grinding time, 1 700 r/min grinding speed, and 1.2:1 mass ratio of TA10 to EL90, the median particle size of the DDPS dispersion system is 0.310 μm. The DDPS is evenly distributed in the flame-retardant viscose spinning dope and does not affect the spinnability of viscose collagen solution. Compared to VF, the peak heat release rate of flame-retardant viscose fibers decreases by 18.8 % and the limiting oxygen index increases from 19% to 31.31% when DDPS is 20%.

      Preparation and properties of polyurethane-based carbon nanotube/liquid metal conductive fibers
      XUE Chao, ZHU Hao, YANG Xiaochuan, REN Yu, LIU Wanwan
      Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(07):  29-35.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210506707
      Abstract ( 49 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (9201KB) ( 17 )   Save
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      In order to improve the elastic properties of carbon nanotubes as conductive fillers, carbon nanotubes (CNT) and liquid metal (LM) were used as conductive fillers, thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) was used as matrix, N, N-dimethylformamide was used as solvent, and deionized water was used as coagulation bath to produce the CNT/LM/TPU conductive fibers through the wet spinning process. The effects of LM and CNT on the structure and properties of fibers were studied. The results show that when the conductive filler content is 40% for LM and 10% for CNT, the mechanical properties of CNT/LM/TPU fiber were greatly improved with the fracture stress reaching 10.16 MPa and the elongation at break 252%. The CNT/LM/TPU fiber has good electrical conductivity, which is 5.41 S/m. Circuit experiments show that the fiber can be used as a wire lighting circuit, and the circuit can still have current through under the strain levels of 100% and 200%. CNT/LM/TPU fiber has excellent recovery performance, and it still has stable resistance recovery after 20 repeated tensile loading. In addition, the fiber also had good antibacterial properties, and the antibacterial rate against Staphylococcus aureus reaches 92.61%.

      Determination of molecular weight and Mark-Houwink parameters of bio-based polyamide 56
      WANG Lijuan, GONG Yumei, LI Xiaoyan, WANG Ying, HAO Xinmin, FAN Lijun
      Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(07):  36-40.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210600705
      Abstract ( 52 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (1786KB) ( 36 )   Save
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      In order to quickly evaluate the molecular weight of the bio-based polyamide 56 (PA56), the molecular weight parameters K and α of Mark-Houwink equation for bio-based PA56 were calculated by measuring the molecular weight and fluidity of the solution. Bio-based PA56 was dissolved in 90% formic acid (FA) and hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) respectively, and the intrinsic viscosity of the dilute solution was determined at 25 ℃. It was found reasonable to use the limit of specific concentration viscosity as intrinsic viscosity value in solvent FA which formed strong hydrogen bond with PA56, but in solvent HFIP that was unable to form strong hydrogen bond with bio-based PA56, the specific concentration and logarithmic viscosity limits intersect at a point where intrinsic viscosity was determined. The molecular weight parameters of bio-based PA56 in FA were found to be α=0.77 and K=7.088×10-3 cm3/g, and the molecular weight parameters in HFIP were α=0.90 and K=2.140×10-3 cm3/g.

      Textile Engineering
      Residual twist of core yarn and its application in hollow spindle cover spinning
      AO Limin, LOU Huan, TANG Wen
      Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(07):  41-46.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210803207
      Abstract ( 42 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (9680KB) ( 22 )   Save
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      In order to explore the characteristics and application of the false twist effect of the outer wrapping yarn on the core yarn in hollow spindle cover spinning process, covered yarns of different processes were produced with black and white polyester filament yarns as the double core yarn, and the black polyester filament yarn being the outer wrapping yarn. The influence of twist direction and twist number characteristics of core yarn as well as the spindle speed, yarn take-up speed and core yarn tension on core yarn residual twist were analyzed. The principle spinning segment color yarn with core yarn residual twist and the characteristics of segment color were discussed with exemplified applications. The results show that the false twist effect of the outer wrapping yarn on the core yarn causes the residual twist to be unevenly distributed in the core yarn. The twist number of the residual twist increases with the rise in the spindle speed, the slowing down of the take-up speed and reduction of the core yarn tension. Using the "fragment coloring" effect of the core yarn residual twist, the "yarn/yarn" composite segment color yarn with a segment color appearance can be spun from the different color core yarns, and the composite yarn has the characteristic of "flashing color" which is different from the conventional segment colored yarns.

      Preparation of cotton/Ti3C2 conductive yarn and performance of pressure capacitance sensor
      ZHAO Boyu, LI Luhong, CONG Honglian
      Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(07):  47-54.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210403408
      Abstract ( 51 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (5481KB) ( 28 )   Save
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      The paper aims to explore the combination effect of two-dimensional transition metal carbide/nitride(MXene) and natural fibers so as to devise capacitive flexible sensing fabric with a simplified preparation process by knitting. In the experiment, a new two-dimensional transition metal carbide Ti3C2 was used as the conductive material, and cotton yarn as matrix fiber to achieve the continuous preparation of conductive yarns. A cross structure capacitive pressure sensor was designed with a flat-knitting spacer fabric as dielectric layer and conductive yarns as electrodes. The effects of treatment time on the micro morphology, bonding effect and electrical conductivity of the yarns were studied, and the mechanical properties and capacitance characteristics of the pressure sensor were analyzed. The experimental results show that the conductivity of the composite yarn of Ti3C2 material and cotton yarn reach 0.872 S/cm. The prepared sensor has good compression recovery, and remarkable capacitance characteristics. The highest sensitivity is 0.028 kPa-1, the response time is less than 150 ms, demonstrating durability and stability of the sensor after 200 compression cycles.

      Calibration method of three-dimensional yarn evenness based on mirrored image
      MA Yunjiao, WANG Lei, PAN Ruru, GAO Weidong
      Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(07):  55-59.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210403805
      Abstract ( 45 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (3627KB) ( 17 )   Save
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      Aiming at the lack of information in yarn detection from two-dimensional image and at the low accuracy of three-dimensional (3-D) yarn evenness, a calibration method for 3-D yarn evenness based on mirrored image was proposed. Four types of compact cotton yarn with different thickness were selected, and the multi-view images of each yarn were collected in one image by a camera. The collected images were calibrated on the xoz plane and xoy plane, while binarization and morphological opening were carried out respectively to obtain clear binary image of yarn evenness. According to the geometric relationship of the mirror imaging system, the 3-D model of yarn was created, and the number and CV value of white dots on each cross section of yarn were calculated. The modeling accuracy of yarn was evaluated by comparing with the yarn diameter and CV value of yarn diameter experimentally measured by Uster TESTER 5. The results show that the correlation coefficient between the number of pixels in each section of the 3-D yarn model and the diameter is more than 0.987, and the difference of CV value between the proposed method in this research and that from Uster testing is less than 2.36%, which proves the feasibility of the calibration method.

      Thermal and moisture comfort performance of polyethylene knitted fabric
      QIAN Juan, XIE Ting, ZHANG Peihua, FU Shaoju
      Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(07):  60-66.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210306007
      Abstract ( 52 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (4447KB) ( 24 )   Save
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      In order to study the influence of structure parameters of polyethylene knitted fabric on thermal and moisture comfort performance, three specifications of polyethylene filaments were selected to prepare double rib knitted fabrics. As comparative samples, polyester and cool polyester filaments were selected as well to prepare fabrics with the same structure. The effect of the type of raw material, the under-fill coefficient and the twist of the filaments on the porosity, air permeability, thermal conductivity and moisture permeability were investigated. It was found that when the fabric structure was the same, the raw material and under-fill coefficient were closely related to the air permeability, moisture permeability, and thermal conductivity of polyethylene fabric. Yarn twist was closely related to the thermal conductivity and moisture conductivity. Compared with polyester and cool polyester, polyethylene fiber was preferred for preparing cool functional textiles because of its better air permeability, moisture permeability and thermal conductivity resulting from the grooves on the surface, higher crystallization and orientation of the filament.

      Study on heat-storage and heat-release of thermal protective fabrics under deformation
      GUO Jing, ZHOU Qianwen, HE Jiazhen
      Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(07):  67-74.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210704108
      Abstract ( 38 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (4049KB) ( 12 )   Save
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      In order to explore the protective mechanism of thermal protective fabrics under tensile deformation, a tester to measure the heat-storage and heat-release properties of thermal protective fabrics under deformation was developed. Using this device, the thermal-protective and thermal-hazardous performances, caused by heat-storage and heat-release, of six different thermal protective fabrics under tensile deformation were studied. The results show that with the increase of the tensile extension of the fabric, the accumulated stored energy within the fabric during the heat exposure stage decreases while the skin heat gain significantly increases, leading to the decrease of the thermal protective performance. In addition, when a double layer fabric system was subject to tensile deformation, the outer layer fabric usually stores more thermal energy than the thermal liner and the reduction in the accumulated stored engergy was mostly because the decrease of heat storage in the thermal liner. During the cooling stage, the accumulated heat discharge to the skin gradually decreases and the heat discharge efficiency increases as the tensile strain rate of the fabric increases. When the fabric was under tensile deformation, the amount of accumulated heat discharge is found to be proportional to the accumulated stored energy.

      Analysis of quasi-brittle fracture performance of glass fiber composites based on boundary effect model
      ZHU Lütao, HAO Li, SHEN Wei, ZHU Chengyan
      Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(07):  75-80.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210805206
      Abstract ( 41 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (2733KB) ( 10 )   Save
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      In order to solve the quasi-brittle fracture problem of glass fiber composites, the thickness of the single-layer prepreg of the glass fiber composite materials was introduced, based on the boundary effect model, as a microstructure parameter to establish an analytical equation. The quasi-brittle fracture parameters such as tensile strength and fracture toughness were calculated based on the peak load of the specimen, and the mean value of fracture parameters was obtained after normal distribution analysis. The results indicate that the tensile strength is 169.48 MPa and the fracture toughness is 20.34 MPa·m1/2, covering almost all discrete points within the reliability range of 95%. Fitting the parameters of the specimen together, the linear fitting curve between the fracture load and the equivalent area was obtained with the error being only 4.95%.

      Structural and laminar damage mechanisms in layer-to-layer orthogonal angle-interlock woven fabrics and composites
      JIA Xuefei, ZHUANG Yi, TANG Yujing, LI Shanshan, SHI Wen, ZHANG Lei, LIU Ming, ZHOU Jiangming
      Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(07):  81-89.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210810509
      Abstract ( 27 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (10156KB) ( 13 )   Save
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      In order to analyze the internal structure and the load bearing of layer-to-layer orthogonal angle-interlock woven fabrics and composites, X-ray computed tomography (Micro CT) volume pixels was used to extract non-destructively the internal structure. The micro-structure of layer-to-layer orthogonal angle-interlock the woven fabric was observed by three-dimensional reconstruction, and the twisting and extrusion of monofilaments inside the fabric was observed. The distribution of pores and high-density impurities in the composite were reconstructed and the quantitative estimations were carried out. The results show that the composite demonstrated good integrity after the laminar damage test, there are phenomena shch as pore deformation, delarmination, fiber bending and lamella fractures inside. It was confirmed that the unique structure of the layer-to-layer orthogonal angle-interlock woven fabric effectively improved the interlaminar mechanical properties of the composites, highlighting the importance of non-destructive X-ray computed tomography in analyzing the imaging data of fiber reinforced composites.

      Dyeing and Finishing & Chemicals
      Preparation and flame retardant properties of environmental biomass based flame retardant PD
      ZHANG Guangzhi, FANG Jin
      Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(07):  90-96.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210601008
      Abstract ( 35 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (8575KB) ( 23 )   Save
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      In order to improve flame retardancy and washability of pure cotton fabrics, a halogen-free environment-friendly durable flame retardant PD was synthesized with biomass phytic acid and dicyandiamide, which was applied to the flame retardant finishing of a cotton fabric. The chemical structure and elemental composition of flame retardant PD were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and X-ray energy spectrometer, and the surface morphology, thermal stability, flame retardancy and washability of the treated fabric were investigated. The results show that flame retardant PD is a multi-active phosphorus-nitrogen flame retardant; the mass fraction of flame retardant PD is 35% in the flame retardant finishing of cotton fabric. The residual carbon amount of PD flame retardant treatment sample is 13.32% at 800 ℃ pyrolysis (nitrogen atmosphere), and the fabric damage length of vertical combustion is 4.5 cm. The LOI value of the flame retardant fabric reaches 43.6%, and it can still reach 29.1% after 40 times of standard washing. It demonstrates that a biomass environment-friendly flame retardant PD offers excellent flame retardancy and washability.

      Preparation and properties of photografted flame-retardant cotton fabrics with modified adenine nucleotide
      LI Na, WANG Xiao, LI Zhenbao, LI Qian, DU Bing
      Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(07):  97-103.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210205407
      Abstract ( 31 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (8348KB) ( 13 )   Save
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      In order to improve the durability of ribonucleic acid (RNA) unit applied to flame-retardant cotton fabrics and to reduce the cost of biological flame retardant treatment, a RNA unit derivative, 5'-adenine nucleotide (AMP), was modified with allyl bromide to prepare biological flame retardant monomer. The AMP monomer and AMP monomer/acrylamide were grafted on pristine cotton fabrics via photografting to prepare flame retardant cotton fabrics with AMP monomer and AMP monomer/acrylamide, respectively. The chemical structure of flame retardant monomer was characterized; the flame retardant properties of pristine cotton fabrics and flame retardant cotton fabrics were measured. The research results show that unsaturated double bonds were successfully introduced into AMP monomer. The decomposition temperature of the two photografted flame-retardant cotton fabrics was lower than that of pristine cotton fabric, and the weight loss of flame-retardant cotton fabrics was reduced. The after-flame time and after-glow time of flame-retardant cotton fabric photografted with AMP monomer/acrylamide were both decreased to 0 s. There is a certain synergistic flame retardant effect between AMP monomer and acrylamide leading to a lower cost.

      Application of antibacterial and antibacterial adhesion finishing agents in cotton fabric modification
      YANG Yao, CHENG Wei, YU Yuanyuan, WANG Qiang, WANG Ping, ZHOU Man
      Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(07):  104-110.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210603407
      Abstract ( 48 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (10053KB) ( 26 )   Save
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      In order to prepare cotton fabrics with both antibacterial and antibacterial adhesion functions, free radical polymerization of [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl) (SBMA) or 2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacry-late (TMSPMA) was produced utilizing a light-controlled glucose oxidase system to obtain antibacterial adhesive polymer P(TMSPMA-co-SBMA) or antibacterial polymer P(TMSPMA-co-DMAEMA). The two polymers were individually or jointly applied to the cotton fabric using the impregnation-baking method. The chemical structure, element composition, antibacterial properties and anti-dead/live bacteria adhesion properties of the finished fabrics were measured. The results show successful adhesion of two polymers on the cotton fabric. The antibacterial agent finished cotton fabric has a bacteriostatic rate of 99.9% with many dead bacteria on the surface, and the antibacterial adhesion agent finished cotton fabric shows a bacteriostatic rate of more than 85% but with less dead/live bacteria adhering to the fabric surface. The antibacterial and antibacterial adhesion rates of cotton fabrics exceed 98% and 81%, and the surface of the fabric can prevent dead bacteria from adhering.

      Preparation of discarded mask-based ZIF-8/Ag/TiO2 composite and its photocatalytic property for dye degradation
      ZHANG Yaning, ZHANG Hui, SONG Yueyue, LI Wenming, LI Wenjun, YAO Jiale
      Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(07):  111-120.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210501310
      Abstract ( 40 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (11364KB) ( 26 )   Save
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      Aiming to use discarded masks for purifying printing and dyeing wastewater, ZIF-8/Ag/TiO2 heterojunction was prepared based on the chemical co-precipitation and calcination methods using metal organic framework ZIF-8 as the supporting material, making use of the characteristics of ZIF-8 being highly adjustable pore size, large specific surface area, excellent adsorption capability, and high photocatalytic activity. The synthesized ZIF-8/Ag/TiO2 particles were loaded on the surface of discarded mask. The morphology, structure, specific surface area, chemical bonding state, electronic energy band structure, and thermal stability of the resultant particles and mask-based composite were systemically characterized. The properties of adsorption and visible light photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue and Congo Red dyes were investigated. Experimental results indicated that in comparison with the untreated mask, the adsorption and photocatalytic degradation capabilities towards methylene blue by the mask-ZIF-8/Ag/TiO2 composite were improved by 12.9 and 4.8 times respectively with good reusability. ZIF-8/Ag/TiO2 heterojunction exhibited stronger adsorption capacity and visible light photocatalytic activity as compared with ZIF-8 and ZIF-8/TiO2. The band-gap of ZIF-8/Ag/TiO2 was narrowed due to the doping of Ag into ZIF-8/ZnO and the doping of C and N into TiO2. In addition, the hollow-structured ZIF-8/Ag/TiO2 with holes could absorb more visible lights.

      Synthesis and decolorizing performance of modified flocculant for treating dyeing wastewater
      GAO Luxi, LÜ Xuechuan, ZHANG Chi, SONG Hanlin, GAO Xiaohan
      Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(07):  121-128.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20201202008
      Abstract ( 31 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (3381KB) ( 16 )   Save
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      To improve the decolorizing performance of epichlorohydrin and polyamine flocculants, the modified epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine decolorizing flocculant was prepared using diethylenetriamine as the cross-linking agent and epichlorohydrin and dimethylamine as raw materials. Its flocculating performance was studied through the flocculation experiment by using Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B as the simulated dyeing wastewater. Effects of material molar ratio, reaction temperature, water temperature, pH value, concentration of dyes and dosage of modified flocculant on the performance of the decolorant were studied. Mixed usage with polyacrylamide was also investigated. The optimized conditions to prepare the modified flocculant are that the molar ratio of epichlorohydrin to dimethylamine to diethylenetriamine is 1:0.95:0.05 and reaction temperature is 90 ℃. The optimized conditions of flocculating decolorization are that water temperature is 20 ℃, pH value is 4, concentration of dyes is 200 mg/L, and modified flocculant dosage is 125 mg/L. Under the optimized conditions of flocculating decolorization, the modified flocculant was used, achieving 91.0% color removal. The results indicate that the modified decolorizing flocculant shows a better performance than the unmodified decolorizing flocculant. The modifier improves the charge neutralization and bridging-netting function of the modified flocculant. Decolorization performance and salt tolerance of the modified flocculant are improved due to the mixed usage with polyacrylamide.

      Apparel Engineering
      Structural design and modeling of low-waste weft knitting fully fashioned female vests
      DONG Zhijia, SUN Fei, CONG Honglian, YU Xuliang
      Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(07):  129-134.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210701606
      Abstract ( 58 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (8644KB) ( 56 )   Save
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      In order to reduce the waste of raw materials and production energy consumption in producing weft-knit vests, the female tight-fitting short vest was taken as the object for research and development, involving structural modeling and processing experiment. The traditional weft knitting fully fashioned vest was produced longitudinally with shoulder width transformed into transverse rectangular shoulder width, whilst the vest was divided into regions according to function specifications which were fabricated with different seamless structures to achieve the desired properties. Through virtual simulation and parameter visualization, the values for the partition structures were able to be readjusted. Material waste comparison was carried out between the new and conventional methods. The results show that by transforming the structure of the weft knitting fully fashioned vest and performing functional partitioning, visual modeling and adjusting the process parameters, the production of weft knitting fully fashioned female vests with low material waste and high efficiency are achieved, which offers reference ideas for transformation and energy-saving product development of similar products.

      2020 version of continuous structural modification on Donghua young women's garment basic block
      LIU Yongmei, XUE Huixin, XU Danniang, ZHANG Xianghui
      Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(07):  135-140.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210605606
      Abstract ( 40 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (2551KB) ( 29 )   Save
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      To adapt to the changes in the body shape characteristics of young women and improve the fitness and applicability of the garment basic block, the 2020 version of Donghua young women's garment basic block was established. Based on the structure of the 2008 version of Donghua young women's garment basic block, a hypothetical prototype for sample modification experiments was established. 56 young women aged 18-29 were tested to modify the hypothetical prototype sample of real life dress. The difference test was performed on the modified data, the regression relationship between the control parts of the prototype was adjusted, and the relaxation distribution rule of the hip part of the prototype was explored. Through the sample clothing correction experiment, trends were observed on young female's neck root circumference increase, shoulder inclination, and slight humpback. The adjustment of the prototype on the basis of the 2008 version of Donghua women's garment basic block is as follows: the regression formula changes at the front horizontal collar, back horizontal collar, back straight collar, chest width, back width and scapula dart, and the angle of the back shoulder oblique decreases. The distribution of hip circumference looseness in front, side and back parts was 19.0%, 60.4% and 20.6%, respectively. Based on these changes, the 2020 version of Donghua young women's garment basic block would improve the applicability of clothing prototype to different styles of clothing.

      Research and development of special-care incontinence underwear based on temperature and humidity sensor
      HUANG Rui, XIAO Aimin
      Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(07):  141-148.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210700708
      Abstract ( 39 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (6383KB) ( 27 )   Save
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      Aiming at the misalignment in price, efficacy and use efficiency of the existing incontinence underwear, this research was carried out to optimize the design of incontinence underwear from the aspects of textile materials, structure and functional modules, so as to achieve the real-time monitoring of incontinence for people with special care. The existing excreta disposal products equipped with prompt function were analyzed, identifying the shortcomings such as uneasy to use, inconvenient replacement, high price, and poor compatibility. The temperature and humidity sensor, as well as STC89C52 controller, were employed for the monitoring incontinence, making use of the multi-layer alarm mechanism. Real-time reception of the patient information on mobile APP was realized through the WI-FI module. Consequently, the research and design of incontinence-monitored underwear were achieved through clothing structure optimization and test and evaluation experiments of clothing for wearing effect. The research results demonstrate that this incontinence-monitored underwear can significantly improve the replacement efficiency and actual nursing efficiency on the basis of meeting the comfort requirements. Such incontinent products are of low cost and excellent brand compatibility.

      System of seven-lead electrocardiogram monitoring based on graphene fabric electrodes
      LI Ruikai, LI Ruichang, ZHU Lin, LIU Xiangyang
      Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(07):  149-154.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210501606
      Abstract ( 39 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (12752KB) ( 22 )   Save
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      Aiming at the problems that Ag/AgCl gel electrode is not suitable for long-term monitoring and the single lead for wearable electrocardiogram (ECG) device is insufficient for precise examination, a seven-lead wearable ECG monitoring system based on graphene fabric electrode was designed. The system was made of four parts, i.e. the cotton/T400 blended high-elastic ECG suit, a graphene fabric electrode, a seven-lead ECG acquisition terminal, and an APP for data display. The continuous work hours, continuous wearing signal quality and multiple usage scenarios of the system were measured for analysis. The test results show that the SNR (signal/noise ratio) of ECG signal is about 29.8 dB after wearing the graphene fabric electrode for 7 days continuously. The device with a 250 mA·h lithium battery can be used for a maximum of 5 days. It has high reliability, accuracy and wearability in multiple test scenarios of resting, walking, jogging and resting spontaneous sweating. To some extent, it has great potential for continuous remote monitoring.

      Study on sensory evaluation of performance of washed wool sweaters based on ridge regression method
      ZHAO Xin, WANG Caixia, ZHOU Xiaopi, DING Xuemei
      Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(07):  155-161.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210704507
      Abstract ( 32 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (18898KB) ( 19 )   Save
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      For clothing products, there is usually a collinearity relationship between different sensory properties evaluation. In order to obtain the relationship, 17 wool sweaters were used as the experimental objects, by using on-the-spot questionnaire survey, 9 specific sensory evaluations from 30 women assessors were obtained, which were then analyzed using the ridge regression method, so as to achieve the quantitative relationships among the overall impression and different sensory property evaluations of clothing. The weights of different sensory properties on the overall impression are sorted as flatness, elasticity, bulkiness, size proportion effect, neckline shape, hem shape, fuzz and pilling, damage, armhole joint shape. In addition, the accuracy of regression fitting between the predicted value from ridge regression equation and the actual surveyed value reaches 0.977. It does not only predict the consumers' sensory evaluation of product, but also help the enterprises to accurately focus on the consumers about products. In conclusion, ridge regression is proved to be a good method to study the quantitative relationship of sensory property evaluation with collinear relationship, and it can be widely used in kansei engineering of a variety of garments.

      IP marketing strategy for clothing brands based on SIPS model
      JIANG Runtian, JIN Peng, WU Yan, CHEN En
      Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(07):  162-169.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210705809
      Abstract ( 44 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (14725KB) ( 25 )   Save
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      Aiming at the lack of systematic layout of clothing brand IP marketing strategy, this paper puts forward clothing brand IP marketing strategy based on SIPS consumer behavior analysis theory. The IP marketing strategy of clothing brand was divided into three dimensions, i.e. content, form and drainage. Combined with SIPS theory, the logical relationship and layout of the three-dimensional strategy were modified, and three IP marketing content strategies, five form strategies and four drainage strategies were obtained. The characteristics and effectiveness of each dimension strategy were extracted, and the clothing brand IP marketing strategy based on SIPS theory was put forward. The research results show that after the implementation of the IP marketing strategy guided by the model, the omni-channel reading volume and sales volume of a commercial project are greatly improved. After the implementation of the marketing strategy for the first time, the number of readers, times and sales volume of the brand are increased by 180.5%, 178.9% and 389.7%, respectively. The adjustment strategy of clothing brand according to its own positioning, consumer groups and marketing objectives can provide enlightenment for the sustainable and vertical development of the brand.

      Design of global textile supply chain network with rules of origin
      MAO Mao, WANG Changjun
      Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(07):  170-177.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210608808
      Abstract ( 68 )   HTML ( 21 )   PDF (3607KB) ( 51 )   Save
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      In order to maximize the profit from global supply chain networks of textile companies, a mixed integer nonlinear programming model based on the rules of origin was developed, where the critical decisions, such as factory layout, supplier selection, production and transportation, were taken into account. For optimization, the proposed model was equivalently linearized into a tractable linear model and an algorithm based on Benders decomposition was designed. The experiments were implemented based on various trading regulation arrangements, especially the regional cumulative rule of origin involved in the coming Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership agreement. Their influences on the companies' cross-border supply chain network design and profits were investigated. The results show that the increase of the proportion requirement for rules of origin will lead to the decline of enterprise profits, and under the regional cumulative rules of origin, enterprises can make more free decisions on site selection and production and procurement, which is conducive to the realization of the optimal allocation of global supply chain.

      Machinery & Accessories
      Automatic bobbin changing technology for circular weft knitting machines
      TU Jiajia, SUN Lei, MAO Huimin, DAI Ning, ZHU Wanzhen, SHI Weimin
      Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(07):  178-185.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20201205708
      Abstract ( 56 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (5224KB) ( 21 )   Save
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      Facing the problems such as low automation, high labor intensity and high labor cost associated with traditional manual cylinder changing, a new automatic cylinder changing scheme based on truss robot and bobbin changing manipulator was proposed. According to the bionic technology of manual changing the bobbin, the mechanical structure of the truss robot and the bobbin changing manipulator was designed and a laboratory testing machine was developed, taking in to considerations of the factors such as the layout of the production workshop, the structure of the bobbin, the type of the bobbin and the changing period, the process flow and the electrical principle diagram of the automatic bobbin changing. The control algorithm of bobbin change based on AS320T module and servo motor was established, and the function of automatic bobbin change was achieved by using a touch-screen as man-machine interface. The research results show that the control technology can meet the requirements on precision, stability and repeatability of the automatic bobbin changing of the circular weft knitting machine, and realize the function of "automatic bobbin changing with manual thread joining" for the circular weft knitting machine, which is significant in solving the problems in traditional manual bobbin changing.

      Design of warp knitting machine data management system based on cloud server
      ZHENG Baoping, JIANG Gaoming
      Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(07):  186-192.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20220101307
      Abstract ( 43 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (4187KB) ( 16 )   Save
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      Targetting at the complexity in data management for warp knitting machines, poor system data security and difficulty in remote transmission of process files, a new data management system for warp knitting machines based on cloud server was designed. Through the establishment of warp knitting machine data model and system principle analysis, a cloud database was designed on the selected cloud server, and the file transmission scheme was designed on the file transmission platform. From the calculation and analysis of shogging and let-off control parameters, the program control parameters of the main control system were optimized and encapsulated by using binary files, data tables and configuration files, so as to achieve data interaction between cloud server and the main control system. The test results show that the data management system can realize the remote management of warp knitting machine data in real time and intuitively, and the warp knitting machine data obtained by cloud server is stable and reliable. The warp knitting machine process files are quickly and safely loaded into the main control system for remote transmission of process files, and the configuration files encapsulated by the main control system are completely and effectively uploaded to the cloud server.

      Comprehensive Review
      Research progress in functional dressings for scar inhibition in wound healing
      SONG Ziyu, ZHAO Juyang, QIN Yue, HUANG Xiaorui, GAO Jing, WANG Lu
      Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(07):  193-199.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20201207107
      Abstract ( 55 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (3164KB) ( 32 )   Save
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      In order to achieve scarless cutaneous wound healing, a summary of the relevant researches at home and abroad on the effect of functional dressings on inhibiting scarring was reviewed and summarized. The wound healing process was reviewed in the first place, concentrating on the factors affecting scar formation, namely external environment and internal biological signal regulation, the performance requirements of scar-inhibiting dressings under different physiological environments and demands at different stages of wound healing. At the three stages of inflammation, proliferation and remodeling, functional dressings inhibit scarring by reducing inflammatory response, regulating signal transduction and promoting tissue regeneration, respectively. Studies have shown that scar formation is a dynamic, continuous and complex process involving inflammatory cells, keratinocytes, fibroblasts and various growth factors. Therefore, in order to achieve better effect of functional dressings used to suppress scars, it is necessary to pay attention to the research of new drug delivery systems and the optimal design of dressings structures.

      Research progress in supercapacitors based on flexible textile fibers
      NIE Wenqi, SUN Jiangdong, XU Shuai, ZHENG Xianhong, XU Zhenzhen
      Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(07):  200-206.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210407208
      Abstract ( 59 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (3082KB) ( 50 )   Save
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      In order to promote the application of fiber supercapacitors in the field of flexible energy storage, supercapacitors made from high performance fibers (i.e. carbon nanotube fiber, graphene fiber), natural fibers and man-made fibers were reviewed. The performance of supercapacitors using different types of fibers were analyzed and compared, and the advantages and disadvantages of various fiber supercapacitors were summarized. The results show that the structure, electron transfer resistor, and ion diffusion rate of high-performance fibers determine the specific energy and cycle life of the fibers supercapacitor. However, this type of fiber supercapacitor is limited by the mechanical properties of material, resulting in difficulties for subsequent weaving. Natural and man-made fibers used for making supercapacitors are easily processed with textile technologies, because the mechanical properties of the fibers meet the needs of the subsequent textile processing. The energy storage is affected by the effect of active material structure, density, and electron transfer. Finally, the research directions for flexible fiber supercapacitors are put forward, and difficult problems that need to be overcome in the future are analyzed and prospected.

      Research progress of biochemical protective clothing
      LI Chenfei, LIU Yuanjun, ZHAO Xiaoming
      Journal of Textile Research. 2022, 43(07):  207-216.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210308710
      Abstract ( 66 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (4081KB) ( 57 )   Save
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      In order to fully understand the performance requirements of biochemical protective clothing, the classification and moisture permeability mechanism of four types of biochemical protective clothing were introduced. The research progress of rubber based protective materials, ion exchange membrane materials, disinfection polymer materials and other polymer composite materials used in biochemical protective clothing was examined, and the research status of biochemical protective clothing was introduced. The new technologies used in biological protective clothing, including self-healing technology and electrospinning technology, were summarized, providing new ideas for the development of biological protective clothing. According to the development status of biochemical protective clothing, the current problems were pointed out, and the future research trend was prospected. It is concluded that although the biochemical protective materials are developed with rapid pace, many problems remain in their industrialization. The future work should be focused on the expansion and improvement of the protection scope and performance, making them more comfortable to wear with intelligence.