Journal

#### Table of Content

15 February 2021, Volume 42 Issue 02
• Invited Paper
Promotion mechanism of color fastness to sublimation in thermovacuum environmental conditions for fibroin powder/pigment complex
CAO Genyang, WANG Yunli, SHENG Dan, PAN Heng, XU Weilin
Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(02):  1-6.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20210106206
Abstract ( 301 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (6065KB) ( 206 )
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In order to improve the thermal sublimation fastness of pigment particles on colored fabrics under thermovacuum environmental conditions, surface morphology, particle size and molecular structure of naphthol red F3RK pigment particles and silk fibroin powders were investigated, and the color of the fabric was tuned by mixing pigment particles with silk fibroin powder at different ratios. The subatomospheric pressure is used to simulate the thermal force field in the thermalvacuum environment, under which the adsorption performance was studied under different mixing ratios between pigment particles and silk fibroin powder. The interaction between silk fibroin powders and pigment particles were discussed, and the theoretical model was established. The results show that the silk fibroin powder is effective in improving thermal sublimation of colored fabrics in thermovacuum environmental conditions due to the synergistic effect of its large specific surface area and amido bonds. Employment of this method increases thermal sublimation fastness to level 5. The results of this study are of referencing significance for improving the thermal sublimation fastness of colored fabrics under extreme environmental conditions.

Fiber Materials
Preparation, structure and properties of high-strength high-modulus polyimide fibers containing benzimidazole moiety
ZHENG Sensen, GUO Tao, DONG Jie, WANG Shihua, ZHANG Qinghua
Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(02):  7-11.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200708006
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In order to improve the mechanical properties of polyimide (PI) fibers and promote their applications for composites, the spinning dopes were synthesized by an aromatic heterocyclic diamine monomer of 2-(4-aminophenyl)-5-aminobenzimidazole (BIA) with rigid polyimide backbones of 3,3',4,4'-biphenyl tetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA) and p-phenylene diamine (p-PDA), which were based on a structural design of high-performance polymeric fibers. The PI fibers were prepared via dry-spinning the BPDA-PDA-BIA solution. The relationships between mechanical properties of the fibers and chemical construction and aggregation structure were studied. In addition, the thermal properties and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation resistance of the fibers were evaluated systematically. The results show that the PI fibers reach the optimum tensile strength and initial modulus of 4.04 and 130 GPa, respectively, mainly due to the high orientation of the polymer chains along the fiber direction and the intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions. The glass-transition and 10%-weight-loss temperature of the PI-4 fiber are 324 and 587 ℃, and the fiber retains 92% of its tensile strength after 168 h of UV irradiation, indicating prominent UV irradiation resistance and excellent thermal stability.

Preparation and optical properties of flexible photonic crystal film for structural colors
WANG Xiaohui, LI Yichen, LIU Guojin, TANG Zuping, ZHOU Lan, SHAO Jianzhong
Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(02):  12-20.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20201007209
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To solve the problem that photonic crystal (PC) structures constructed by hard nanospheres are easy to be damaged by external forces, resulting in poor durability of the structural colors, polystyrene/poly (methyl methacrylate-butyl acrylate) (PS/P(MMA-BA)) nanospheres were synthesized by means of the step-by-step polymerization method, and the flexible PC films with structural colors were fabricated by using the prepared PS/P(MMA-BA) nanospheres as assembly blocks through melt-shear induced self-assembly method. The results show that the core cross-linking agent, divinylbenzene (DVB), is able to increase the cross-linking density and refractive index of PS core, to produce a certain refractive index contrast with the outer layer, and to make the PS core surface have double bonds, covalently bonding with the outer layer of P(MMA-BA). The outer layer cross-linking agent, allyl methacrylate (ALMA), improves the stability of the outer layer by forming some crossing-linking bonds. When DVB is 12.5% of styrene (St) and ALMA is 0.3% of the total amount of MMA and BA, PC film demonstrates excellent optical and mechanical properties. PC structures assembled by the nanospheres exhibit excellent flexibility, brilliant structural colors, and high stability during the bending, washing and rubbing tests. The melt-shear assembly method adapted to the PS/P(MMA-BA) nanospheres can rapidly fabricate large area of flexible PC film with structural colors.

Preparation of nano-tungsten oxide composite cotton fiber and its photochromic properties
WANG Yuting, LING Zhongwen, YANG Xin, LIU Yuqing
Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(02):  21-26.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20201006007
Abstract ( 184 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (5408KB) ( 65 )
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In order to solve the problems of unstable crystal structure, long photochromic response time and short life of tungsten oxide, light yellow tungsten oxide nanorods were prepared by the hydrothermal one-step method for uniform dispersion into polyvinyl alcohol solution with aid of magnetic stirring. Cotton fiber was coated with tungsten oxide nanorods by rapid and continuous impregnation coating process, and its structure and properties were characterized. The results show that under the irradiation of ultraviolet light, the color of photochromic fiber changes from light yellow to grayish blue in 1 min, and gradually to dark blue in 5 min, and the color of photochromic fiber returns to its initial state in about 2 h during infrared heating treatment, showing a fast and reversible color switch from light yellow to dark blue. The photochromic fiber can be produced on a large scale and can be woven into various patterns, which has great potential in developing photochromic textiles.

Preparation and properties of continuously produced electric-responsive liquid crystal fibers
SHENG Mingfei, WANG Wanning, ZHANG Liping, FU Shaohai
Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(02):  27-33.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20201009007
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To solve the color changing problem in flexible display made of electro-responsive liquid crystal fibers without an external electrode, this study developed a preparation process for electrochromic liquid crystal (ECLC) fibers with a coaxial sandwich structure. The ECLC fiber with conductive fiber for the inner conductive layer, conductive hydrogel for the outer transparent conductive layer, polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) as the electrochromic layer was prepared via a continuous coating method. The influence of conductive fiber types and PDLC components on the morphology and electrochromic properties of ECLC fibers was explored. The results show that when the carbon/polyamide fiber is as the core material and the mass ratio of R-CLC/polymethyl methacrylate/CH2Cl2 is set to 15∶1∶8, the prepared ECLC fiber has an obvious three-layer core-shell structure demonstrating good electrochromic performance in low driving voltage (40 V) and fast response time (9 s). The electrode-less ECLC fiber device developed in this study lays the foundation for the development of smart flexible display textiles.

Preparation and properties of polyacrylonitrile/carboxyl styrene butadiene latex composite nanofibrous membranes
GUO Xuesong, GU Jiayi, HU Jianchen, WEI Zhenzhen, ZHAO Yan
Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(02):  34-40.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200804607
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In order to improve the mechanical properties of electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofiber membranes, a series of PAN/SBR composite nanofibrous membranes were prepared by immersing PAN nanofibrous membranes into carboxyl styrene butadiene latex (SBR) solution. The effects of SBR content on the surface morphology, chemical structure, wettability, thermal and mechanical properties of PAN nanofibrous membranes were investigated. The results reveal that SBR is physically bonded to PAN nanofibers. With the increase of SBR content, the distribution of SBR on the surface of PAN fiber gradually becomes uneven. The addition of SBR has no effect on the thermal stability of PAN membrane, but increases the water contact angle and jeopardizes the hydrophilicity of the membrane. At the same time, adding a small amount of SBR (less than or equal to 15.6%) is found to increase the breaking strength, breaking elongation, initial modulus, breaking energy and puncture resistance of PAN nanofibrous membrane. When the content of SBR is 8.5% of PAN membrane, the breaking energy of the composite membrane is increased by about 4 times, which significantly improves the mechanical properties of PAN nanofiber membrane.

Protein adsorption and cell response on bio-interfaces of silk fibroin/octacalcium phosphate composites
YANG Ya, YAN Fengyi, WANG Hui, ZHANG Keqin
Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(02):  41-46.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20201008606
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To further understand the structure-function relationships for biomimetic materials for the purpose of designing a favorable implant microenvironment for osseointegration in vivo, the nano/micro hierarchical structure of silk fibroin (SF)/octacalcium phosphate (OCP) composite coating was constructed by controlling simply the SF concentration of the electrolyte during the electrochemical deposition process. The influence of SF concentration on surface morphology, mechanical property, protein adsorption and cell proliferation were studied. The results show that the pore diameter of the coating surface decreases from (19.96±6.96) μm to (1.56±0.22) μm and the crystal width decreases to the nano-scale with SF concentration increasing in electrolyte. Comparing the pure OCP coating, the elastic modulus and hardness of the SF/OCP composite coating (1.0 mg/mL SF) increase approximately 1.5 times and 4.3 times, respectively. The SF/OCP composite coating selectively enhances fibronectin (Fn) adsorption, and the cell viability on the SF/OCP composite coating (1.0 mg/mL SF) is 1.28 times that on the pure OCP coating after culturing for 7 days.

Preparation of flax layered nano-cellulose and properties of its reinforced thermoelectric composites
HU Jing, ZHANG Kaiwei, LI Ranran, LIN Jinyou, LIU Yuqing
Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(02):  47-52.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20201005507
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In order to prepare layered nano-cellulose from natural flax fiber, i.e. coexistence of cellulose nanofiber (CNF) and cellulose nanocrystalline (CNC), and improve the preparation method of CNF from flax fiber, a method of alkaline treatment of flax fiber in a specific concentration of sodium hydroxide solution, followed by tempo mediated ternary oxidation and mechanical treatment, was proposed. The CNF/graphene composite films were prepared by compounding flax CNF with graphene to study the properties of flax CNF reinforced thermoelectric composites. The results show that the diameter and length of flax fiber become smaller and the hemicellulose is removed after alkaline pretreatment, which is an important step towards generation of CNF with different sizes. The optical transmittance of CNF suspension increases from 3.7% to 95.1% with the increase of NaOH concentration in the range of 0-18%, and the highest power factor of CNF/graphene composite film is 8.0 × 10 -3 μW/(M·K 2), which indicates that the composite film has thermoelectric properties.

Preparation and properties of sodium alginate/krill protein scaffold materials
YIN Juhui, GUO Jing, WANG Yan, CAO Zheng, GUAN Fucheng, LIU Shuxing
Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(02):  53-59.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20201008107
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In order to improve the strength and bio-compatibility of sodium alginate based scaffold materials made from polyelectrolyte composite system with sodium alginate (SA) and krill protein (AKP), SA/AKP scaffold materials were prepared by inducing phase separation-chemical cross-linking method at low-temperature. The structural morphology, mechanical properties, porosity, air permeability, water absorption and bio-compatibility of different concentrations of SA/AKP solutions were compared. The results show that when the concentration of SA/AKP sample is 4%, the pore size of the stent is between 20 and 96 μm with uniform and regular shape. The porosity, and absorptive characteristics of liquid and air permeability of the tissue scaffold decreased with the increasing concentration of SA/AKP solutions, and the fracture strength and elongation of the scaffold increased with the increasing concentration of SA/AKP solutions. When the concentration is 4%, the porosity of the scaffold material is 86.4%, the air permeability is 58.9%, while offering high strength and elongation. The cell toxicity grade of the scaffold is 0, indicating excellent biological safety.

Textile Engineering
Exploration of image-based testing method for yarn twist in air-jet vortex spinning
LI Hao, XING Mingjie, SUN Zhihao, WU Yao
Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(02):  60-64.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20201008005
Abstract ( 229 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (3844KB) ( 65 )
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In order to find an effective method suitable for yarn twist test produced by air-jet vortex spinning, with the help of scanning electron microscope, the twist of the yarn was tested by the appearance and cross-section images of the air-jet vortex spinning yarns, based on the comparative analysis of yarns made via air-jet vortex spinning and the traditional ring-spinning. Photoshop was used to process the cross-sectional images of the air-jet vortex spinning yarn, determining the outer layer and the inner layer of the yarns. The relationship between the ratio of inner and outer fibers of air-jet spun yarns and twists were analyzed. The research results show that due to the special structure of the air-jet vortex spinning yarn, the traditional twisting and untwisting method is not suitable for the air-jet vortex spinning yarn twist test. It is feasible to test the twist by the image of air jet vortex spinning yarn. There is a negative correlation between the ratio of the number of fibers in the inner and outer layers of the air-jet vortex spinning yarn and its twist.

Modeling method of cyber physical production system for ring spinning
YIN Shiyong, BAO Jinsong, TANG Shixi, YANG Yun
Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(02):  65-73.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20201007809
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In light of the problems such as long process flow of ring spinning, large variations in fiber morphology, mixed production continuity and discreteness, and the diverse and complex relationships between data flow and control flow in the production process, the ring spinning cyber physical production system architecture was comprehensively studied. According to the "computation, communication, and control" characteristics of cyber physical systems, the ring spinning cyber physical production system was defined. On this basis, the fiber flow, data flow and control flow of ring spinning cyber physical production were analyzed, leading to the establishment of a ring spinning cyber-physical production system model encompassing "fiber flow-data flow-control flow". Using the model-based system engineering method, the SysML modeling language was used to specify requirements for the partial models and full model for the ring spinning cyber physical production system considering "fiber flow-data flow-control flow". The results show that the proposed modeling method can effectively establish a ring spinning cyber physical production system model, and has certain reference significance for the intelligent production of ring spinning.

Preparation and performance of polyester/silk woven heart valve
HUANG Di, LI Fang, LI Gang
Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(02):  74-79.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20201008207
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In order to develop an artificial heart valve with required mechanical properties and blood-proof performance, polyester (PET) multifilament and degummed silk fibroin (SF) were used for preparing woven artificial heart valve fabric (AHVF) through optimized design experiments on a sample weaving machine, with different structures, yarn linear densities and fabric densities. The optimization results show that when the thickness of AHVF is as thin as (0.52±0.1) mm, the AHVF demonstrates good hydro-philicity with contact angel of (60°±1.2°) which is closed to human heart valve. It is shown that AHVF has anisotropic mechanical properties and low permeability, with warp elastic modulus being 60~100 MPa, warp breaking strength 20~40 MPa, weft elastic modulus 7~50 MPa, weft breaking strength 7.5~20 MPa, and water permeability lower than 300 mL/(cm 2·min). Such properties of AHVF meet the standards for heart valve materials, indicating the feasibility of the AHVF for heart valve application.

Characterization of fabric smoothness appearance based on buckling-induced mechanical test with multiple deformation of fabrics
XIAO Caiqin, SUN Fengxin, GAO Weidong
Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(02):  80-86.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200601307
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The existing methods for testing fabric smoothness appearance based on image methods or visual principles are susceptible to the complex patterns and textures of fabrics, with shortcomings such as poor adaptability for different types of fabrics. Characterization method of fabric smoothness appearance was proposed based on the simultaneous-mechanical testing technology. 30 fabric samples were selected for in-situ mechanical test under multiple deformations, and five characteristic indexes of the force-displacement test curve were extracted respectively. SPSS software was used to correlate the extracted characteristic indexes, and fabric thickness with the subjective evaluation results. The stepwise regression method was used to construct a prediction model for fabric smoothness appearance, and the prediction model was validated with the help of a set of independent experiments. The results show that the evaluation results of the prediction model based on the in-situ mechanical test method have a good agreement with the subjective evaluation results, indicating the feasibility and effectiveness of the in-situ mechanical test method to characterize the appearance of the fabric.

Simulation and virtual display for few-guide bar yarn dyed fabric based Web
LIU Haisang, JIANG Gaoming, DONG Zhijia
Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(02):  87-92.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20201000807
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In order to simulate and virtually display the few-guide bar yarn dyed fabrics, and analyze the knitting principle and the structure characteristics, based on the measurement and analysis of the actual stitch size, geometric models for stitches were established. Matrices for coordinates of stitches and transformation were adopted to obtain the stitch coordinates of the whole fabric according to the chain notation. Double buffer technology in the Web software was used to store the canvases with stitches and underlaps, which were superimposed together to implement the simulation. The pattern texture was captured as a screenshot, which was displayed on garment models by texture mapping. The simulated results were validated by comparing bitmaps of the real fabrics and the simulated ones. This research indicates that the method adopted is able to precisely simulate the pattern and size to achieve the visual design and display.

Threshold and intensity evaluation of skin wetness perception under dynamic contact with fabrics
ZHANG Zhaohua, TANG Xiangning, LI Jun, LI Luyao
Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(02):  93-100.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20201005008
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To gain insight into how fabrics affect the perception of wetness under dynamic skin contact at different velocities, the influencing mechanism of absolute threshold and intensity of the perception of wetness were investigated. By applying quantitative amounts of water (low, medium, and high) to each of the testing fabrics, participants reported the intensity of perceived wetness on a psychometric scale. In addition, water was supplied continually with a pump until the threshold of wetness was perceived by the participants. At the same time, the temperature sensors were used to record local skin temperature and calculate skin cooling rate. The results indicate that skin cooling rate has a significant positive correlation with wetness intensity rating, while a negative correlation with absolute threshold. The intensity rating of wetness perception is predicted by the physical parameters of the fabrics, that is maximum transient thermal flow, water content, and friction coefficient, while wetness threshold was predicted by wetting time and coefficient of friction. The threshold detection was qualified to evaluate the sensitivity to wetness at the initial detection of moisture on the skin, while the stimulus intensity rating would give a better prediction at the moisture absorption stage. This study provides the evaluation technology for designing clothing with desirable wetness levels.

Detection of fabric density uniformity based on convolutional neural network
MENG Shuo, XIA Xuwen, PAN Ruru, ZHOU Jian, WANG Lei, GAO Weidong
Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(02):  101-106.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20201008406
Abstract ( 214 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (4877KB) ( 90 )
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Aiming at the narrow field of vision, low precision, and low adaptability in the current automatic methods for measuring fabric density, a multi-scale convolutional neural network was proposed. An offline image acquisition system was designed to acquire fabric images continuously, and a fabric image dataset containing detailed fabric parameters was established. Then, a multi-scale convolutional neural network with different sizes of local receptive fields was used for dealing with different fabric structure features and for locating yarns. The Hough transform and gray projection method were used to process the predicted yarn position map in order to calculate the warp and weft density and evaluate the fabric density uniformity. The results show that, compared with other methods, the detecting error of the warp and weft densities for different types of fabrics is less than 2%, which indicates that the proposed method has a higher accuracy and stronger variety adaptability.

Simulation on tensile properties of tubular weft knitted fabrics based on ABAQUS
SUN Yabo, LI Lijun, MA Chongqi, WU Zhaonan, QIN Yu
Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(02):  107-112.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200706106
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In order to better understand the tensile deformation capability of tubular weft knitted fabrics, a three-dimensional weft knitted fabric loop model and a tubular weft knitted fabric model were established using a three-dimensional modeling software Rhino, on the basis of the measured fabric structure parameters. The tensile properties of the fabric were simulated on unit loop level and tubular fabric level using the finite element analysis software ABAQUS. Numerical simulations of fabric tensile process were studied and corresponding experiment verification was carried out. Deformation and stress distribution of yarns in the stretching process of knitted fabrics were analyzed and discussed. The results indicate that when fabrics are stretched along the length direction, the finite element analysis results of its deformation and stress change are described accurately compared to the experimental results. Moreover, the difference in stress and strain values between the simulated and the experimental results is about 8%, indicating that the numerical simulation is feasible and effective.

Dyeing and Finishing & Chemicals
Simulation study on effect of organic solvents on dispersion and hydrolytic stability of liquid reactive dyes
XU Baolü, WU Wei, ZHONG Yi, XU Hong, MAO Zhiping
Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(02):  113-121.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200701109
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In order to explore the mechanism of organic solvents affecting the storage stability of reactive dyes in liquid reactive dyes system, the effects of four organic solvents on the aggregation and hydrolysis of high concentration C.I. Reactive Blue 176 were investigated and verified by experiments, based on molecular dynamics simulation. Simulation analysis on radial distribution function of organic solvent molecules around dye shows that the difference in the effect of different organic solvents on the dispersion and hydrolysis of reactive dyes is related to the distribution of organic solvents in the effective area of dye molecules aggregation and around the hydrolytic groups of dyes. The strength of the interaction between them determines the storage stability of dyes. In N-methyl pyrrolidone systems, among 72 dyestuffs of the four organic solvents, 31 has the best dispersing effect on C.I. Reactive Blue 176, and the degree of dye aggregation is low, while caprolactam has the most effective effect on inhibiting the hydrolysis of liquid reactive dyes.

Fluorescence detection of Cr(VI) from printing and dyeing wastewater by zirconium-organic framework
GUAN Binbin, LI Qing, CHEN Linghui, XU Yuting, FAN Zenglu
Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(02):  122-128.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20201002307
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Considering the pollution caused by heavy metal chromium ions in printing and dyeing wastewater, zirconium chloride and 2,2'-biquinoline-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid (H2L) were used to synthesize Zr-metal organic framework (Zr-MOF). The structural stability in water and in strong acid/base environments and photoluminescence property of Zr-MOF were confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction and fluorescence tests. The results of fluorescence sensing detection of Cr(VI) ions show that Zr-MOF performs highly selective fluorescence quenching recognition and quantitative detection towards trace $CrO 4 2 -$ and $Cr_{2}O_{7}^{2-}$ ions in water, under the interference of a variety of mixed anion and ions. The detection limits are confirmed to be 6.704 and 11.232 mg/L for $CrO 4 2 -$ and $Cr_{2}O_{7}^{2-}$ ions, respectively. The photoluminescence and fluorescence quenching detection mechanisms of Zr-MOF are proposed. Furthermore, after 7 consecutive fluorescence detection cycles, the fluorescence emission intensity of Zr-MOF still retains at above 95%.

Preparation of highly hollow biomass-based activated carbon fiber and its adsorption property to methylene blue
CHENG Lüzhu, WANG Zongqian, WANG Dengfeng, SHEN Jiakun, LI Changlong
Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(02):  129-134.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200805106
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In order to improve the adsorption efficiency of activated carbon fiber to colored wastewater, the activated carbon fibers with highly hollow structures were prepared, using the calotropis gigantea fiber as the precursor, by phosphoric acid activation and high temperature carbonization. The morphology, chemistry and pore structures of the calotropis gigantean activated carbon fiber were characterized systematically by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrocopy methods. Meanwhile, the adsorption properties and mechanism of carbon fibers to methylene blue were analyzed. The results show that the average hollow degree of calotropis gigantea activated carbon fiber is more than 92%, and the fiber also exhibits a rough surface and develops mesoporous structures with the specific surface area and average pore diameter of 1 244.812 m 2/g and 3.744 nm, respectively. Moreover, the surface of carbon fiber is rich in elements O and P, which constitute the active surface of carbon fiber. The saturated adsorption capacity of the carbon fiber to methylene blue aqueous solution with initial mass concentration of 100 mg/L can reach 198.840 mg/g. The adsorption process to methylene blue follows the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation. The adsorption to methylene blue conforms to the Freundlich model, which is mainly multilayer adsorption.

Bonding fastness of magnetron sputtering nano-films with various textile substrates
LIU Mingxue, ZHAO Qian, WANG Xiaohui, LIU Qiongxi, SHAO Jianzhong
Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(02):  135-141.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20201008308
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To address the problem that the magnetron sputtering nano-films on natural fiber substrates are prone to whole layer shedding, the rubbing fastness and soaping of the magnetron sputtering structural color films on different fiber substrates were systematically tested, and the effects of the initial moisture content and the low-temperature plasma surface modification on the bonding fastness of the magnetron sputtering films to the fiber substrates were investigated in detail. The underlying reasons for the different bonding fastness of the magnetron sputtering films to different fiber substrates were studied by means of scanning electron microscope analysis technique combined with the analysis on physical and chemical properties of different fiber materials. The results show that due to the softening point of the thermoplastic polyester fiber, the kinetic energy of the energetic magnetron sputtered particles is converted into thermal energy when they are deposited on the fiber surface, causing the polyester fibers to locally reach the softening point and bonding the sputtered particles. On the contrary, cotton and silk fibers have no softening point, so the fibers have no melt-bonding effect on the magnetron sputtering particles. In addition, as cotton and silk fibers have hygroscopic swelling properties, the intrusion of water molecules during the soaping process weakens the interaction force between the fibers and nanoparticles, causing the easy shedding of the magnetron sputtering nano-films.

Preparation and decolorization of rayon based zeoliticimidazolate framework functional material
LOU Yaya, WANG Jing, DONG Yanchao, WANG Chunmei
Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(02):  142-147.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200700106
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In order to improve the decolorization performance of zeoliticimidazolate framework material (ZIF-8) for dyes, reduced graphene oxide(rGO)/ZIF-8 rayon based functional materials were prepared by loading graphene oxide (GO) and ZIF-8 on rayon surface followed by reducing. The functional materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Black KN-B dye by rGO/ZIF-8 rayon based functional material under different light sources was studied, and the photocatalytic mechanism was discussed. The results show that the decolorization ratio of rGO/ZIF-8 rayon based functional material for Reactive Black KN-B dye is 97.1%, and the superoxide anion radical (·O 2-) produced by the reaction between the functional material and sunlight are captured by dissolved oxygen in water, which is the main active substance to degrade Reactive Black KN-B. After being reused for three times, the decolorization ratio of Reactive Black KN-B dye remains to be more than 90%.

Adsorption performance of chitosan based hybrid aerogel on reactive dyes
HE Xuemei, MAO Haiyan, CAI Lu
Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(02):  148-155.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200800408
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In order to effectively remove reactive dyes in textile dyeing wastewater,and hence to reduce the impact on water environment and human health hazards, achitosan based hybrid aerogel (CS/WSK/PDA/TiO2) was prepared by solution blending and freeze-drying techniques, using chitosan(CS) polymer as the skeleton material, dopamine(WSK) as bio-adhesive agent, and chitin whisker(PDA) as cross-linking agent. The hybrid aerogel was used to absorb the Reactive Violet X-2R, Reactive Red KE-3B and Reactive Yellow M-3BE. The morphology and structure of the prepared chitosan hybrid aerogels were characterized by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform in frared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope. The effects of different conditions on the adsorption performance of the hybrid aerogel were studied. The experimental results show that chitosan-based hybrid aerogels have lamellar, porous functional structure,and the nano titanium oxide is embedded in the chitosan based hybrid aerogel. When the adsorption conditions are set to 30 ℃ and neutral pH value,the adsorption capacity of CS/WSK/PDA/TiO2 aerogels for Reactive Violet X-2R, Reactive Red KE-3B and Reactive Yellow M-3RE Reaches 400 mg/g, 398.4 mg/g, and 404.9 mg/g, respectively. The adsorption kinetic results are well described by the pseudo-second order kinetic.

Color prediction model of compound filament
WANG Yujuan, WANG Jun
Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(02):  156-160.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20201007905
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In order to facilitate the computer-aided pre-spinning design of original color-matching yarns, a color prediction model was proposed based on the transmittance, reflectance and arrangement of the monofilament from the perspective of light transmission between monofilaments. Red, green, yellow, and blue colored films instead of monofilament were used. The films of any two colors were cut into different sizes, and 12 multifilament samples were made by superimposing the colored films. The mixed color of the sample was tested with datacolor colorimeter, and the color difference between the mixed color tested by the colorimeter and predicted by the model was calculated. The factors causing the color difference were discussed through Pearson correlation analysis. The results show that the average predicted color difference is 0.43 CMC (2∶1) color difference unit. The saturation and hue angle of the multifilament has a significant impact on the predicted color difference, showing that the predicted color difference decreased with the increase of the saturation of the multifilament, and increases with the increase of the hue angle of the multifilament.

Preparation of self-crosslinking fluorinated polyacrylate emulsion and its application properties
CAI Lu, KANG Jialiang, LÜ Cun, HE Xuemei
Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(02):  161-167.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200908807
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In view of the risks of long-chain perfluoroalkyl compounds to the environment and human body, four types of self-crosslinking fluorinated polyacrylates with different crosslinking agent contents were prepared by emulsion polymerization in this research. The long-chain perfluoroalkyl compounds were replaced by using environmentally friendly perfluorohexyl ethyl acrylate as functional monomer and γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane as the crosslinking agent. The structure and performance of the self-crosslinking fluorinated polyacrylate emulsions were analyzed using particle size tester, Zeta potential analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectrum and thermo-gravimetric analysis, and the application performance of self-crosslinking fluorinated polyacrylate emulsions were investigated with on cotton fabrics as the application object. The results show that the addition of crosslinking agent works in improving the thermal stability of fluorinated polyacrylate.Self-crosslinking fluorinated polyacrylate forms a complete water-repellent film on the surface of cotton fabric, and its static contact angle reaches as high as 138.2°. As the content of the crosslinking agent is further increased, the static contact angle of the treated cotton fabric drops to 90.6°.When the amount of crosslinking agent is 1.68 g, the treated cotton fabric demonstrats good washability.

Construction of superhydrophobic surface of cotton fabrics via dissolving etching
HAO Shang, XIE Yuan, WENG Jiali, ZHANG Wei, YAO Jiming
Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(02):  168-173.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20201008807
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In order to explor a green, simple and effective preparation method for making superhydrophobic cotton fabrics, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coating was used to finish a cotton fabric with low surface energy, and then the salt particles were deposited and dissolved to form a rough structure. The effects of the amount of PDMS, salt particle size, deposition time and lasting time of the superhydrophobic properties of the fabric were investigated. The microstructure, element composition and stability of the superhydrophobic surface were characterized by of contact angle measuring instrument, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction energy spectrum. The results show that there are micrometer pits on the surface of the cotton fabric. The static water contact angle (WCA) on the fabric surface is found up to 155.47° with the water slip angle of 5.5°. The WCA of the fabric, after immersing in strong acid and strong alkali solution for 12 h, still reaches 143.91°. After soaking the treated fabric in 60 ℃ water for 60 min, the WCA is 144.43°, and the WAC of the fabric drops by 11.31% only after 20 rubbing cycles. In addition, the superhydrophobic surface displays the self-cleaning function and anti-dyeing effect.

Preparation of multifunctional core-shell structure thermoelectric fabrics by low-temperature interfacial polymerization
ZHANG Xuefei, LI Tingting, SHIU Bingchiuan, LIN Jiahorng, LOU Chingwen
Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(02):  174-179.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200801206
Abstract ( 164 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (6397KB) ( 29 )
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In order to prepare high-conductivity, flexible, and multifunctional thermoelectric fabrics, a low-temperature in-situ interfacial polymerization method was proposed to fabricate core-shell thermoelectric textile with p-toluenesulfonic acid ion-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT∶Tos) coated with polypropylene(PP) fibers. The structure and performance of thermoelectric fabrics were characterized and analyzed by scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, and infrared thermal imager. The results show that the prepared thermoelectric fabrics have excellent flexibility as a textile materials, and good conductivity due to PEDOT∶Tos with conductivity reaching 2.1 S/cm. When a voltage of 10V is applied to both ends of a thermoelectric fabric, the surface temperature increases by about 20 ℃, indicating good electric heating performance and effective conversion of electric energy into heat energy. When the thermoelectric conversion device constructed using the thermoelectric fabric is placed in a temperature gradient field with a temperature difference of 20 ℃, it can continuously output a voltage of 0.3 mV.

Machinery & Accessories
Numerical analysis on formation mechanism of airflow field in rotor spinning unit
SHI Qianqian, WANG Jiang, ZHANG Yuze, LIN Huiting, WANG Jun
Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(02):  180-184.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20201008705
Abstract ( 132 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (8140KB) ( 71 )
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The airflow field in a rotor spinning unit under a normal working condition is mainly affected by the air suction mechanism and rotor rotation mechanism. In order to investigate the contribution of the two mechanisms to the formation of airflow field in the rotor spinning unit, three cases corresponding to different operating conditions were established for investigation, and the fluid domain in the three cases based on the computational fluid dynamics were numerically simulated. The velocity distribution and air pressure distribution of the airflow field in three cases were also analyzed and discussed. Numerical simulation results show that the airflow field in the rotor spinning unit is determined by the air suction at rotor outlet and the high-speed rotor rotation. The air suction mechanism provides the necessary air velocity and negative pressure environment for fiber's transportation. The rotation mechanism assists in smooth transfer of the fibers to the rotor slide wall, the ordered arrangement of fibers, and the accumulation of the fibers to rotor groove. It is under the joint action of the two mechanisms that a unique spinning environment where fibers are driven using air for rotor spinning is formed.

Optimization design of electrode plate based on electrostatic adsorption and transfer used for garment fabric
LIU Lidong, LI Xinrong, LIU Hanbang, LI Dandan
Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(02):  185-192.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200802408
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In order to improve the effect of robot in the process of garment customization, unstable adsorption of the robot end-effector during grabbing and transferring fabric was worked on. The key factors of electrostatic plate design, the shape arrangement and structure parameters of the electrode plate were analyzed and optimized. The model of knitted weft knitted fabric was constructed, the four electrode distribution forms were simulated and compared, and the most suitable shape arrangement for garment fabric of the electrode plate: the comb electrode was obtained. The shape arrangement and structural parameters of the electrode plate were then optimized with the objective of maximizing the adsorption capacity per unit area. The simulation results show that the electrode with comb-shaped arrangement and optimized structure parameters can grab garment fabrics well, meeting the requirements for automatic garment production.

Transverse vibration characteristics of knitting needles in seamless underwear machines based on axial movement cantilever beam theory
DAI Ning, PENG Laihu, HU Xudong, ZHONG Yaosen, QI Dongming
Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(02):  193-20.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200803708
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During the axial movement of the knitting needle in seamless underwear machines, the transverse vibration characteristics of the knitting needle are closely related to the performance of the knitting mechanism. However, there are few studies on the transverse vibration of knitting needles at this stage during the knitting process, hindering the improvement of stability of the seamless underwear machine in terms of vibration. In this paper, the vibration characteristics were theoretically studied with the knitting needle as an equivalence to an axially moving cantilever beam and the finite element calculation was carried out using ANSYS simulation software. The transverse vibration characteristics of the knitting needles were examined using a high-speed camera. The transverse vibration curve and dynamic frequency value calculated theoretically and by simulation demonstrates high level of resemblance with each other for the transverse vibration curve, and the maximum deviation of the dynamic frequency value is below 3.84%, The experimental results prove the existence of transverse vibration during the knitting process, and the frequency value obtained is consistent with the theoretical and simulation results, which implies the correctness of the theoretical and simulation modeling.