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Table of Content

    15 January 2021, Volume 42 Issue 01
    • Invited Paper
      Research progress of transforming electrospun nanofibers into functional yarns
      YANG Yuchen, QIN Xiaohong, YU Jianyong
      Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(01):  1-9.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20201205809
      Abstract ( 648 )   HTML ( 66 )   PDF (1279KB) ( 566 )   Save
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      Electrospun nanofibers are well-known for unique size effect and surface/interface effect, but limited by single assembly form, insufficient structure stability and mechanical properties. Nanofiber assembly with yarn architecture contributes to fully integrate the respective merits of both nanofiber and textile structure, and breaks through the bottleneck and broadens the application of nanofibers. Firstly, the latest research progress of electrospun nanofiber-based yarns is systematically reviewed from the aspects of forming principle and technology, functional design and application. Furthermore, the potential problems in highly efficient, controllable preparation and practical application of nanofiber-based yarns are deeply analyzed, and the future development trend of this field is also prospected. It is considered that integrated high-tech micro-devices with small-batch preparation and wide range of functional fabrics with mass production are the main application directions of nanofiber-based yarn to industrialization, moreover, efficiently green fabrication and multi-functional integration of nanofiber yarns with high-quality are the future development priorities.

      Fiber Materials
      Preparation and properties of sol-gel modified flame retardant viscose fiber
      MA Junzhi, GE Hong, WANG Dong, FU Shaohai
      Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(01):  10-15.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200606006
      Abstract ( 283 )   HTML ( 24 )   PDF (1783KB) ( 138 )   Save
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      In order to improve the flame-retardant properties of viscose/dithiopyrophosphate (VF/DDPS) fibers, the sol-gel technology was used to modify the VF/DDPS fiber surface via the hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). The structures and properties of the modified flame retardant viscose fibers (VF/DDPS/TEOS) were characterized by means of scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analyzer, cone calorimeter,micro combustion calorimeter, and single fiber strength analyzer. The results show that the flame retardancy of VF/DDPS/TEOS fiber was improved with the increase of char residues from 3.23% to 7.93% at 750 ℃. Moreover, the ignition time of VF/DDPS/TEOS fiber is extended from 4 s to 16 s, peak heat release rate and total heat release are decreased by 19.3% and 16.0% respectively, and limiting oxygen index is increased from 28.2% to 29.3%. The surface of VF/DDPS/TEOS fibers forms a dense silica protective film, and the silica significantly enhances the thermal and mass barrier of the carbon layer on the fiber surface during combustion. However, the breaking strength, elongation at break and hygroscopicity of the modified fiber are decreased.

      Synthesis and properties of biodegradable polyglycolic acid oligomer modified polyester
      JIN Linlin, TIAN Junkai, LI Jiawei, QI Dongming, SHEN Xiaowei, WU Chuntao
      Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(01):  16-21.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200504006
      Abstract ( 211 )   HTML ( 16 )   PDF (1912KB) ( 67 )   Save
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      In order to improve the degradation performance of aromatic poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET), a novel polyethylene terephthalate-co-polyglycolic acid copolymer (PET-co-PGA) was synthesized by copolymerization modification of polyester with degradable polyglycolic acid (PGA) oligomer, through combining melt polycondensation and solid-phase polycondensation process. The structure, intrinsic viscosity, crytallization behavior and degradation property of the novel copolyester were characterized and analyzed by using nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer, differential scanning calorimeter, tensile tester, scanning electron microscope and fluorescence microscope. The results show that the introduction of PGA damages the regularity of PET and results in the decrease of the melting point, crystallization temperature and crystallization ability. The tensile experiments show that the synthesized copolyester with the low volume of addition of PGA has better tenacity compared with pure PET. When 5% PGA is added,the elongation at the break of the copolyester is increased from 13.1% to 15.0%. The degradation rate of pre-modified PET gradually increases with the amount of PGA added.

      Preparation and properties of carbon nanofiber electrode made from electrospun polyacrylonitrile/linear phenolic resin
      WANG He, WANG Hongjie, RUAN Fangtao, FENG Quan
      Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(01):  22-29.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200603108
      Abstract ( 231 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (2506KB) ( 68 )   Save
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      In order to study the effect of carbonization temperature on the performance of carbon nanofiber electrode, polyacrylonitrile/linear phenolic resin(PAN/PF)nanofibers were prepared by the electrospinning method. Following this, carbon nanofibers (CNF) with different structures and properties were obtained by adopting different carbonization temperatures, which were used as electrode materials. The surface morphology, specific surface area, pore structure, graphitization degree and element content of the carbon nanofibers were measured and characterized. The results show that PAN/PF carbon nanofibers have high specific surface area, hierarchical porous structure, good fiber connectivity and excellent graphitization. When the carbonization temperature is 1 000 ℃, the specific surface area of CNF is as high as 1 468 m2/g, the total pore volume is as high as 0.89 cm3/g, and the specific capacitance of the corresponding electrode is as high as 395 F/g. When the carbonization temperature is 1 200 ℃, the conductivity of CNF is at its best (8.23 S/cm), and the corresponding electrode reaches the highest capability retaining rate (63%).

      Numerical simulation of interface distribution of side-by-side bi-component melt in orifice
      LIAO He, WANG Jianning, ZHANG Dongjian, GAN Xuehui, ZHANG Yumei, WANG Huaping
      Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(01):  30-34.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200600505
      Abstract ( 166 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (1693KB) ( 92 )   Save
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      In order to discover the cause for performance instability from interfacial deformation and displacement in side-by-side bi-component fibers, the finite element method was used to simulate the flow of polyethylene terephthalate (PET)/polyamide 6(PA6) polymer melt in the spinneret orifice. According to the results of numerical calculation, the interface changes of parallel flow under different conditions are obtained, and the effects of melt viscosity, inlet flow rate and flow length on the interface position and shape were analyzed. The results show that the interfacial deformation and deviation of the side-by-side bi-component melt occur in the spinneret orifice and that the low-viscosity component tends to wrap the high-viscosity component, whereas the interface change of the melt along the flow direction tends to be stable within a short distance. As the melt viscosity ratio increases, the interface shifts to the low viscosity component and the interface curvature increases. The difference of the inlet flow rate will cause the interface deviation, which will increase with the increase of the flow ratio.

      Dissolution and regeneration of wool keratin in choline thioglycolate
      YUAN Jiugang, JI Ji, XUE Qi, JIANG Zhe, FAN Xuerong, GAO Weidong
      Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(01):  35-39.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200405405
      Abstract ( 188 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (1847KB) ( 45 )   Save
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      In order to improve the solubility and utilization of waste wool fiber, a new type of reducing ionic liquid-choline thioglycolate, was employed for wool dissolution in the reported research. The dissolution process of a single wool fibre in choline thioglycolate was carefully observed using polarizing optical microscope. The wool keratin extracted at different temperatures was characterized through fourier transform infrared spectrometer,X-ray diffraction,differential scanning calorimetry and SDS-PAGE in detail. The results show that choline thioglycolate is able to effectively destroy the disulfide bonds in wool keratin, thus achieving efficient dissolution of the wool cortex and scales. At 120 ℃, the dissolution of wool in choline thioglycolate reached up to 16%, and the regenerated wool keratin retained the main body structure. However, compared with raw wool fibers, the α-helix content in the regenerated keratin and the molecular weight decreased, and the keratin macromolecules degraded seriously under higher temperature.

      Preparation and characterization of polylactic acid-caprolactone/fibrinogen nanofiber based hernia mesh
      YANG Gang, LI Haidi, QIAO Yansha, LI Yan, WANG Lu, HE Hongbing
      Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(01):  40-45.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200301106
      Abstract ( 206 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (1954KB) ( 93 )   Save
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      This paper reports on a research on preparation and characterization of a new tissue mesh engineered for hernia repair, where poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone)/P(LLA-CL) and fibrinogen were blended in different proportions for electro-spinning. A series of P(LLA-CL)/fibrinogen composite nanofiber membranes were prepared, and their micromorphology, surface composition, wettability, mechanical properties and cellular compatibility were characterized and analyzed by scanning electron microscope, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and cell experiments. The results showed that, after combining P(LLA-CL) with fibrinogen, the obtained fibrous membranes were all composed of nanoscale fibers and the porosity reached more than 60%. The addition of fibrinogen greatly improved the hydrophilicity of P(LLA-CL) and changed its original mechanical property. The results show that the P(LLA-CL)/fibrinogen nanofibrous membrane has a good cellular compatibility, and the high level porosity promotes the cell proliferation. In general, the nanofiber based hernia mesh demonstrates a great potential for tissue regeneration, providing a new hope for hernia repair.

      Textile Engineering
      Parameters optimization on polyester drawn textured yarn based on fuzzy multi-criteria
      SHAO Jingfeng, LI Ning, CAI Zaisheng
      Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(01):  46-52.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200501708
      Abstract ( 151 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (1533KB) ( 58 )   Save
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      The research reported in this paper aims to solve the problem of strong coupling among parameters in production of polyester drawn textured yarns.In parallel to the analysis of carbon emission in the production process of polyester drawn textured yarns, the strong coupling relationship among the process parameters was analyzed, leading to the selection of orthogonal test scheme based on the signal-to-noise ratio principle. On the basis of data preprocessing, the optimization method of process parameters based on fuzzy multi-criteria was constructed, and the combination weight and benefit ratio of process parameters were determined. The experimental results show that when the speed of oil tanker is 0.7 r/min, the processing speed is 600 m/min, the draft ratio is 1.55, the oil dipstick height is 180 mm, the temperature of the first hot box is 195 ℃and the temperature of the second hot box is 150 ℃,the average breaking strength of polyester drawn textured yarn is increased by 15.84%, the average elongation at break is increased by 4.04%, and the carbon emission is reduced by 4.58%, which fully show that the process parameter optimization method based on fuzzy multi-criteria workson the problem of strong coupling of process parameters.

      Preparation and electrical properties of triboelectric nanogenerator based on wrapped composite yarn
      MA Liyun, WU Ronghui, LIU Sai, ZHANG Yuze, WANG Jun
      Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(01):  53-58.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200405206
      Abstract ( 209 )   HTML ( 25 )   PDF (2770KB) ( 110 )   Save
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      Aiming at the creation of a tribo-electric nano-generator, a composite yarn, with the polyester-cotton blended yarns as the sheath layer and the conductive nylon filaments as the core layer, was prepared. A tribo-electric nano-generator was achieved by evenly wrapping the polyester-cotton blended yarns over the conductive nylon filaments using the hollow spindle fancy yarn technology. The electrical output of the tribo-electric nano-generator made from the composite yarn was studied. The results show thatnhe tribo-electric nano-generator demonstrated satisfactory electrical output, and the energy output value increases as the yarn length increases. The composite yarn with a length of 25 cm is shown to produce an open-circuit voltage of 23.44 V, and the short-circuit current and short-circuit charge reach 76.19 nA and 7.86 nC, respectively. Under the contact-separation frequency of 0.5 Hz~2.5 Hz, the output power value increases continuously with the increase of the frequency. The tribo electric nano generator maintained a stable work condition after reciprocating for 1000 cycles under 1 Hz frequency. This self-powered yarn based tribo-electric nano-generator can be used for information transmission of Morse code.

      Effect of wrapping and twisting on mechanical properties of air-jet vortex spun yarns
      CHEN Meiyu, LIU Yulin, HU Geming, SUN Runjun
      Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(01):  59-66.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200504408
      Abstract ( 232 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (2857KB) ( 73 )   Save
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      In order to investigate the effect of winding and twisting on the mechanical properties of the air-jet vortex spun yarns, the deformation and force loading of the fibers in air-jet vortex spun yarn during stretching process was analyzed theoretically in this paper, and the effect of the vortex pressure and the spinning speed on the mechanical properties of the vortex spun yarn was investigated in detail. The results indicate that the spiral wrapping of the outer fibers play a decisive role in the mechanical properties of the yarn. The vortex pressure and the spinning speed are the two main factors affecting wrapping and twisting effect of the vortex spinning. When the spinning speed was fixed as 280 m/min, the breaking tenacity and the initial modulus of the yarn demonstrate an increase followed by a decrease, with the breaking elongation virtually unchanged, with the increase of the vortex pressure. When the spinning speed was fixed as 280 m/min with the vortex pressure being 0.55 MPa, the optimum mechanical properties of the yarn were obtained. When the vortex pressure was fixed as 0.45 MPa, with the increase of the spinning speed, the breaking tenacity and the breaking elongation of the yarn both show a slight decreasing trend, and the initial modulus shows a decrease and then stabilized.

      Research on inter-yarn friction of aramid fabric based on adjustable tension device
      CHEN Jieru, QIU Shiyuan, YANG Qingqing, ZHOU Yi
      Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(01):  67-72.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200303806
      Abstract ( 144 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (2305KB) ( 57 )   Save
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      In order to simulate the inter-yarn friction in aramid fabrics under impact loading and to construct a model for predicting the inter-yarn friction under different fabric specifications and pre-tension levels, a fixture with adjustable transverse pre-tension for yarn-pulling experiment was created. The yarn pulling-out experiments were carried out using different widths of warp yarns or weft yarns and pre-tension as variables. The test results show that there is a positive correlation between the transverse pre-tension applied to the fabric and the inter-yarn friction. When the pre-tension increases, the influence of the warp width of the fabric on the inter-yarn friction increases gradually, and the inter-yarn resistance gradually decrease as sample warp width increases. The effect of pre-tension on inter-yarn friction is more prominent than that of the sample warp width.

      3D printing and mechanical properties of glass fiber/photosensitive resin composites
      SONG Xing, JIN Xiaoke, ZHU Chengyan, CAI Fengjie, TIAN Wei
      Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(01):  73-77.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20191105906
      Abstract ( 416 )   HTML ( 16 )   PDF (2025KB) ( 93 )   Save
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      Aiming at the low strength of light-cured 3D printing resin materials, a method of using glass fiber to reinforce photosensitive resin composites was proposed. The glass fiber and the photosensitive resin were compounded and rapidly fabricated by using the light-cured 3D printing technology. The effects of glass fiber modification and the laying method of glass fiber on the mechanical properties of the composites were studied. The results of the mechanical experiments were analyzed, demonstrating that the glass fiber could enhance the tensile strength and flexural strength of the sample. The glass fiber treated by the silane coupling agent is more significant than the untreated glass fiber for the mechanical properties, and the tensile strength of the sample is increased by 50%, and the bending strength 143%. The effect of the laying method simulating three-dimensional orthogonal structure on mechanical properties of the composites is more significant than the continuous long fiber laying method, and the tensile strength is increased by 110% and the flexural strength 147%.

      Freehand machine embroidery product development based on random stitching styles
      WEN Run, ZHANG Xiaohe, ZHOU Sijia, MA Yanxue
      Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(01):  78-83.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200203706
      Abstract ( 180 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF (2726KB) ( 63 )   Save
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      In order to overcome the monotone and rigidity in machine embroidery products due to machine limitations, a machine embroidery technique, which can express freehand brushwork effect, was developed, and inspired by random needle embroidery and the dot color painting principle. Through the design of base unit needle, this paper explores the synergistic effect of the size and number of base unit needle and stitch spacing on pattern shaping. Layered combination through layering color separation, gray-scale processing, stitch arrangement, combination and superposition, and color yarn embroidery was carried out to facilitate products with the freehand effect of random needlework styles. It was found that the 2∶1 ratio of base unit needle side length to stitch spacing leads to the optical results, and that a lower ratio is associated to a clearer the pattern outline, whereas a higher ratio relates to virtual transition between different contours. High density of base unit needle stitches per unit area leads to low lightness of the pattern, and when the base unit needle size and quantity are fixed, the stitch spacing from small to large controls the natural gradual change of pattern from deep to shallow. 60 groups of sample stitch gray values preliminarily established the freehand machine embroidery needle method parameter library, which was shown to be sufficient to demonstrate the effective correspondence between the gray level of each layer and the parameters of base needle, creating a layered combination design that gives the pattern a sense of hierarchy and three-dimensional effect.

      Dyeing and Finishing & Chemicals
      Preparation of compound antistatic spinning oil for bio-based polyamide 56 and its effect on staple fiber spinnability
      WANG Ying, WANG Yiting, WU Jiaqing, GUO Yafei, HAO Xinmin
      Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(01):  84-89.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200403306
      Abstract ( 178 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (1758KB) ( 44 )   Save
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      Aiming at the problems of high mass specific resistance, serious static electricity and poor spinnability of bio-based polyamide 56 (PA56) staple fibers, a spinning oil was developed using the compound technology of commercial oil and antistatic agent. The influence of antistatic agent concentration on the conductivity and pH value of the compound oil was studied. The surface morphology, friction coefficient, mass specific resistance and carding performance of the bio-based PA56 staple fibers were investigated. The results showed that a smooth and uniform oil film was formed on the fiber surface after the compound oil treatment. The optimum concentration of antistatic agent and spinning oil were 2 g/L and 12 g/L respectively. Under this condition, a fiber-web from the PA56 staples was formed at the relative humidity of 35% and room temperature, which was uniform without holes and cloud spots. This compound spinning oil improves the bunching, antistatic and spinnability of PA56 staple fibers. It is a green and energy-saving method, requiring only for ambient temperature and humidity of spinning workshop.

      Preparation of reactive dye/polystyrene composite colloidal microspheres and their structural coloring on silk fabrics
      LU Peng, HONG Sisi, LIN Xu, LI Hui, LIU Guojin, ZHOU Lan, SHAO Jianzhong, CHAI Liqin
      Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(01):  90-95.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200402907
      Abstract ( 355 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (3007KB) ( 62 )   Save
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      In order to improve the color saturation of structural chromogenic photonic crystals on textiles, black reactive dye was introduced onto the surface of positively charged polystyrene (PSt) colloidal microspheres through electrostatic adsorption, resulting in the formation of an external surface absorbable dye PSt structural element (reactive dye/PSt microspheres) for structural coloring. The adsorption process and the modeling of dyes on the surface of PSt colloidal microspheres were studied, the morphology of reactive dye/PSt microspheres was observed, and the arrangement and structural color effects of prepared photonic crystals were characterized. The research results led to the following findings: the adsorption capacity of dyes on PSt microspheres increases with the increase of time, temperature and dye dosage; the adsorption model conforms to Langmuir type; the reactive dye/PSt microspheres have typical core-shell structure, and the particle size of microspheres slightly increases compared with that before adsorption; and the prepared reactive dye/PSt photonic crystals on white silk fabrics present regular arrangement and bright structural colors.

      Measurement method of winding density of cheese package based on laser scanning and modeling
      ZHOU Qihong, SUN Baotong, CEN Junhao, ZHAN Qichen
      Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(01):  96-102.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200404007
      Abstract ( 160 )   HTML ( 11 )   PDF (2072KB) ( 24 )   Save
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      In order to meet the requirement of intelligent high-quality dyeing, and solve the problems of poor accuracy, low efficiency and unsatisfactory digital management and control in winding density measurement of cheese yarn packages, a method for measuring the winding density of cheese packages was proposed based on the rapid scanning of laser displacement sensors for data collection and for establishing a mathematical model. By controlling the sampling distance and scanning path and range, the original point set reflecting the texture characteristics and the trace of the yarn in the cheese package was obtained. Based on the characteristics of different noise points and statistics theory, constraints were added to the original point set for preprocessing. After the point set was treated using the least square fitting and rotating surface equation, a high-precision mathematical model of the surface profile of the cheese yarn package was constructed, and the volume of the yarn was obtained through triple integration so as to calculate the accurate winding density. The experimental results show that the relative error of measurement can be controlled within 2.5%, the standard deviation is 0.069%, the efficiency is high, and the performance is obviously better than the existing methods in the industry.

      Preparation and flame retardant properties of self-extinguishing cotton fabrics by spray-assisted layer-by-layer self-assembly technology
      ZENG Fanxin, QIN Zongyi, SHEN Yueying, CHEN Yuanyu, HU Shuo
      Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(01):  103-111.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200505909
      Abstract ( 186 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (3959KB) ( 81 )   Save
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      In order to endow the cotton fabric with high efficiency flame retardant properties, a new low-cost and green approach was presented for constructing ternary composite coating on cotton fabric through spray-assisted layer-by-layer self-assembly of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, sodium alginate and ammonium polyphosphate in aqueous solutions. The surface morphology, flammability and thermal degradation properties of the cotton fabrics before and after coating were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, vertical flame tests and microscale combustion calorimetry. The results show that coated cotton fabrics self-extinguish instantly when the ignition source is removed, and its limit oxygen index reaches 35.7% together with good washing resistance. High structural stability and flame retardant property are attributed to the external well-constructed flame retardant composite multilayers and phosphorus-silicon-nitrogen synergism on the degradation process and char yield. Such green and scalable strategy for the design and fabrication of self-extinguishing intumescent coating could also be employed for treating various other cellulose fibers.

      Preparation and characterization of Cu/polypyrrole-coated wool fabrics for high electrical conductivity
      YU Jia, XIN Binjie, ZHUO Tingting, ZHOU Xi
      Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(01):  112-117.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200503806
      Abstract ( 194 )   HTML ( 8 )   PDF (3981KB) ( 64 )   Save
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      This research was carried out aiming to study the conductivity of Cu/polypyrrole/wool composite fabrics affected by plasma treatment time and to expand the application of wool fabric in the field of flexible sensor. Firstly, the wool fiber descaling was carried out using plasma vapor deposition technology by treating the wool fabric for 300, 600, 900 and 1 200 s treatment time, before a polypyrrole membrane was constructed by in-situ polymerization on the surface of wool fabric. Cu was then deposited by magnetron sputtering(Cu) film enhancing the conductive network on the surface of the fiber. The structure and conductivity of Cu/polypyrrole/wool conductive fabric were characterized by means of scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and thermogravimetric analyzer. The mechanical properties of Cu/polypyrrole/wool conductive composite fabric were also studied. The results show that the Cu/polypyrrole coated wool fabric with treatment time of 1 200 s demonstrates the highest electrical conductivity and mechanical property, and the average square resistance is 67.32 Ω/□. After washing for 2 h, the square resistance of cu/polypyrrole coated wool fabric is better than that of Polypyrrole/wool fabric without plasma treatment, and the washing resistance is stable.

      Influence of fabric tightness and anti-crease finishing on wrinkle recovery of pure cotton woven fabrics
      HOU Wenshuang, MIN Jie, JI Feng, ZHANG Jianxiang, SU Meng, HE Ruixian
      Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(01):  118-124.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200100507
      Abstract ( 237 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (2387KB) ( 76 )   Save
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      In order to improve the anti-creasy property of cotton fabrics, the influence of the independent and cross-coupling effect of fabric tightness and anti-crease finishing parameters on wrinkle recovery performance of pure cotton woven fabrics were explored. Two groups of pure cotton woven fabrics, twill and plain woven fabrics, were selected as specimens for this research. For each type of fabric specimen before and after the crease-resistant finishing, the instant/slow recovery angle, surface morphology and surface chemical structure were tested. Based on the experimental data, the effects of fabric tightness and resin concentration on wrinkle recovery of cotton fabric were studied. Double-factor analysis of variance was adopted to evaluate the significance of the cross-coupling effect of fabric tightness and resin concentration on wrinkle recovery of cotton fabrics, and the synergistic effect of fabric tightness and resin concentration on wrinkle resistance of cotton fabrics was analyzed. The results show that fabric stiffness and resin concentration demonstrate significant and positive effect on wrinkle recovery of the fabric respectively. When the resin concentration rises, the growth rate of the wrinkle recovery angle of cotton woven fabric with lower fabric tightness is generally larger than that with higher fabric tightness. In addition, when treated by resin with concentration higher than 80 g/L, the winkle recovery angle of lower-tightness fabric is mostly larger than that of higher tightness with same structure.

      Apparel Engineering
      3-D modeling of neck-shoulder part based on human photos
      WANG Ting, GU Bingfei
      Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(01):  125-132.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200707808
      Abstract ( 268 )   HTML ( 13 )   PDF (2568KB) ( 129 )   Save
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      In order to facilitate personalized clothing online design and virtual fitting, a method of size extraction and 3-D modeling based on the front and side photographs of human body was proposed. Eight characteristic cross-sectional layers related to the neck-shoulder shape were determined based on 202 young women's 3-D point cloud data. Taking the center point of each cross-section layer as the reference point, the angle radius was measured every 10° and the relationship among the angle radius, the thickness and width of the curves were analyzed to establish the curve shape rules of each sectional layer. Then, the image segmentation technology was used to extract the human contour based on the front and side photos, the height area where the neck-shoulder feature points were located was identified through the height proportion of the human body, and the parameters required for the curve shape rules of each characteristic section were extracted with the neck-shoulder shape rules. Finally, according to the curve shape rules and anthropometric parameters, NURBS surface modeling was used to realize the 3-D model construction of neck and shoulder based on human body photos. The results show that the error percentage of the basic parameters extracted from human body photos is less than 5%, and the absolute error between the 3-D model constructed by this method and the real value is within 1 cm or 1°, which proves the feasibility of this method, and provides technical support for the automatic generation of garment pattern and 3-D virtual fitting.

      Custom design of cheongsam based on digital 3-D human model
      JI Yanbo, WANG Lingli, LIU Kaixuan
      Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(01):  133-137.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200505706
      Abstract ( 438 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF (2727KB) ( 162 )   Save
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      This reported research worked on the problems of poor fitting and long design and pattern making cycle in the traditional pattern generation process for custom-made body-fitting garment. A method of custom-design of cheongsam based on a three-dimensional visualization technology and reverse engineering technology was adopted. The 3-D virtual design platform was used for the parameterization setting of the human body model supported by the 3-D scanned data of 23 characteristic parts of the human body. Then, a characteristic human body model of "body-fitting tolerance" was constructed by adding the tolerance of the four key parts of the human body model, and the 3-D cheongsam style and internal segmentation design were carried out on it. Finally, the 3-D cheongsam surface was automatically flattened to obtain the 2-D pattern, and the garment made of the 2-D pattern is subjectively evaluated. The results show that the subjective evaluation index of the garment reached more than 4.0 points, and this method can be used to carry out effectively the design of body-fitting garment and the automatic generation of pattern.

      Polo shirt rapid style recommendation system based on interactive genetic algorithm
      ZHANG Zhuo, CONG Honglian, JIANG Gaoming, DONG Zhijia
      Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(01):  138-144.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200505607
      Abstract ( 235 )   HTML ( 14 )   PDF (3066KB) ( 109 )   Save
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      Because of the high threshold of professional knowledge in the virtual design and customization of clothing, customers are not able to obtain their favorite customized styles efficiently. Taking the Polo shirt as an example, the research reported in this paper designed a componentized 3-D model of the Polo shirt and the appearance of its striped knitted fabric, and established a database of Polo shirt design components. The research worked out an optimized interactive genetic algorithm, and an adaptive weighted allocation strategy was used based on similarity. Through algorithm coding, initial population generation, using genetic similarity to obtain individual fitness, selection, subchromosome preference fixation or elimination, crossover and mutation, a style recommendation system, which gradually generate user-satisfied Polo shirt style model design schemes, was established. It was verified that with the increase of evolutionary generation, the maximum fitness value and average fitness value of the population increase. While ensuring a certain search space, it is gradually inclined to the psychological preferences of users, and users can gradually search for more preferred design solutions to achieve user-oriented personalized quick style generation and recommendation of Polo shirts.

      Machinery & Accessories
      Research on dynamic characteristics of spatial-linkage weft insertion mechanism considering flexible hinge clearance
      LI Bo, HU Kai, JIN Guoguang, WEI Zhan, CHANG Boyan
      Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(01):  145-153.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200401309
      Abstract ( 147 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (4535KB) ( 65 )   Save
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      In order to improve the operation efficiency of high-speed rapier loom, the complex influence of the joint clearance on the motion output of the spatial-linkage weft insertion mechanism was studied. Kinematic simulation of the mechanism was firstly carried out by using the vector method, and a variety of discontinuous contact force models considering energy dissipation were compared. The Lankarani-Nikravesh modeling method suitable for high-speed rapier loom was selected. Secondly, combining the calculated kinematic parameters of the spatial linkage with the impact force model of the flexible hinge, the dynamic analysis of the output part of the system was carried out by the Newton-Euler method. Combined with specific engineering practice, the dynamic characteristics of the system with different clearances were worked on. Based on the validation of the virtual prototype test data and the output comparison and error analysis with the rigid hinge clearance collision modeling method. The results show that the increase of clearance leads to sharp fluctuation in rapier head acceleration, affecting the smooth pick-up and accurate weft clamping. When the clearance value is 0.5 mm in particular, the peak error of rapier head displacement is reduced by 69.4% by using flexible hinge method, effectively improving the operating accuracy.

      Reverse modeling and kinematics simulation of new weft insertion mechanism for rapier looms
      YU Chennan, JIA Jiangming, CHEN Zhiwei, CHEN Jianneng, CHEN Jiayou, LU Wentao
      Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(01):  154-161.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200403008
      Abstract ( 154 )   HTML ( 7 )   PDF (3369KB) ( 52 )   Save
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      To improve the design flexibility and motion performance of the weft insertion mechanism in the rapier looms, a new type of eccentric circular and non-circular planetary gear train weft insertion mechanism was presented in this paper. According to the work requirements of weft insertion mechanism, ideal rapier movement was put forward and a mathematical model for calculating the mechanism parameters from the characteristics of proposed weft insertion motion was established. The reverse design and simulation procedure of the weft insertion mechanism were compiled using MatLab, and the parameter optimization and motion simulation of the weft insertion mechanism were performed to obtain the most suitable mechanism parameters. A three-dimensional model of the weft insertion mechanism was established accordingly, and a virtual prototype kinematic simulation test was carried out using automatic dynamic analysis of mechanical systems (ADAMS). It was revealed that the kinematic curves of the rapier head based on the theoretical calculation and simulation are basically the same, which verifies the correctness of the modeling and analysis of the weft insertion mechanism.

      Influencing factors on high speed of electronic shogging system in warp knitting machines
      GUO Weidong, XIA Fenglin, ZHANG Qi
      Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(01):  162-166.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200404105
      Abstract ( 141 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (1647KB) ( 41 )   Save
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      The high-speed response of electronic shogging system in high-speed warp knitting machines is generally poor. According to the motion requirements of warp knitting machine guide bar, this research built a set of test platforms for the response of guide bar motion. Parameters such as servo inertia ratio, motor selection (such as motor power, magnetic pole pairs, and so on) of the electronic shogging system were experimented on to analyze the actual motion curve of the shogging servo motor and the control system command curve against the parameter variations. The experimental results show that the servo inertia ratio parameter setting of the electronic traverse system should be consistent with the actual load, otherwise it will cause comb bar oscillation during traverse, or insufficient motion rigidity, affecting the traverse accuracy. The selection of servo motor should consider the number of pole pairs and the motor power. Increasing the number of pole pairs of the servo motor can greatly improve the responsiveness of the system, and increasing the power of the motor does not contribute to the improvement of system responsiveness.

      Comprehensive Review
      Recent advance in preparation of thermo-regulating textiles based on phase change materials
      CHEN Yunbo, ZHU Xiangyu, LI Xiang, YU Hong, LI Weidong, XU Hong, SUI Xiaofeng
      Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(01):  167-174.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20191002508
      Abstract ( 310 )   HTML ( 28 )   PDF (1070KB) ( 148 )   Save
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      In order to clarify the effect of preparation process on the properties of temperature adjusted textiles, the paper reviewed recent reports dealing with preparation of thermo-regulating textiles using phase change materials (PCMs). Two strategies could be used to incorporate PCMs: they could be introduced either to filling hollow filaments or after the spinning stage, or to fabrics by direct filling, surface grafting, or coating of phase change microcapsules. Fabrication of phase-changing yarns via filling hollow filaments with PCMs is applicable only to a limited amount of fiber materials. Direct filling of woven fabrics is simple and convenient, yet at the cost of handle and comfortableness of the finished fabric. Spinning of or finishing with PCM microcapsules have been industrialized. However, the amount of PCMs incorporated tends to be low. The electrospinning method is not easy to be industrialized. The surface grafting method yielded textiles with good and durable temperature regulating properties, yet suffered from complicated processing. Finally, the future development of temperature regulating textiles with phase change materials is prospected.

      Research advances in manufacture and properties of mesh fabrics
      YANG Ping, YAN Biao, MA Pibo
      Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(01):  175-180.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200403806
      Abstract ( 173 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF (983KB) ( 107 )   Save
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      In order to further expand the application of mesh fabrics for engineering applications, the structural features and preparation methods of woven, knitted and braided mesh fabrics in recent years were examined in this paper. Research progress in the mechanical properties and simulation of mesh fabrics were mainly discussed from the aspects of fiber raw materials, organization structure and finishing. In view of the continuous expansion of application of mesh fabrics, it was concluded that further explorations in the fields of mechanical properties, dynamic simulation and the service life, reduction of the energy consumption were necessary. Combined with the current development of science and technology, mesh fabrics will have further development for ocean, architecture, and aerospace applications. This paper provides a direction reference for the research and development of mesh fabric products.

      Research status of fatigue properties characterization and analysis methods of resin matrix composites
      LÜ Qingtao, ZHAO Shibo, DU Peijian, CHEN Li
      Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(01):  181-189.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200101609
      Abstract ( 172 )   HTML ( 16 )   PDF (1274KB) ( 77 )   Save
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      In order to better understand the fatigue performance of textile composites research, this paper reviews the influence of fabric structure, environmental factors, self-heat during fatigue experiment on the fatigue of composite materials, and the recent research on fatigue strength model of composite materials are scrutinized. Firstly, the fatigue properties and damage of composites reinforced by different fabric structures are compared and analyzed, revealing that the fatigue and damage of composites are affected by the reinforcing structures. Environmental factors, such as water, temperature, chemical medium and ultraviolet radiation, have different damage mechanisms on textile composite materials, but they all make the composite fatigue life shorter. The spontaneous heat generated by the sample during the experiment also leads to premature failure of the composite. The problems in composite fatigue are summarized, and the development directions of composites in the future are proposed.

      Research progress of automatic grabbing and transfer methods for garment fabrics
      LIU Hanbang, LI Xinrong, LIU Lidong
      Journal of Textile Research. 2021, 42(01):  190-196.  doi:10.13475/j.fzxb.20200405507
      Abstract ( 291 )   HTML ( 19 )   PDF (2269KB) ( 110 )   Save
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      In order to promote the integrated development of textile and garment equipment automation and fabric automatic grabbing methods, to solve the problems of excessive labor costs, low production efficiency and customized clothing development, the current research status of the automatic grabbing and transfer methods of garment fabrics was scrutinized. This paper introduced the principles and characteristics of robotic gripping, negative pressure suction cup grabbing, electrostatic suction grabbing, non-contact suction cup grabbing and their impact on garment production. Advantages and disadvantages of the above four automatic grabbing and transfer methods in terms of manufacturing cost, energy consumption, working environment and positioning accuracy were compared. The literature review indicates that the non-contact suction cup has a broader application prospect than the other three, and points out the future development trend of the automatic grasping and transfer method of apparel fabrics, with the aim to upgrade the garment related industries for automation and customized production.